106. Seaborgium - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

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Seaborgium – Seaborgium – Seaborgium – Seaborgio – シーボーギウム – Сиборгий – 金喜
Multilingual dictionary

Seaborgium Latin

— Germanic
Seaborgium Afrikaans
Seaborgium Danish
Seaborgium German
Seaborgium English
Seaborgium Faroese
Seaborgium Frisian (West)
Seborgín Icelandic
Seaborgium Luxembourgish
Seaborgium Dutch
Seaborgium Norwegian
Seaborgium Swedish

— Italic
Seaborgio Aragonese
Siborghiumu Aromanian
Seaborxu Asturian
Seaborgi Catalan
Seaborgio Spanish
Seaborgium French
Seaborgj Friulian
Seaborxio Galician
Seaborgio Italian
Seabòorghi Lombard
Seabòrgi Occitan
Seabórgio Portuguese
Seaborgiu Romanian - Moldovan

— Slavic
Зеаборгий [Zeaborgij] Bulgarian
Siborgijum, ²Seaborgij Bosnian
Сіборгій [siborgij] Belarusian
Seaborgium Czech
Seaborgij Croatian
Seabórg Kashubian
Сиборгиум [Siborgium] Macedonian
Seaborg Polish
Сиборгий [Siborgij] Russian
Seaborgium Slovak
Siborgij Slovenian
Сиборгијум [Siborgijum] Serbian
Сіборгій [siborhij] Ukrainian

— Baltic
Syborgis Lithuanian
Seaborgijs Latvian
Sīborgis Samogitian

— Celtic
Siborgiom Breton
Seaborgiwm Welsh
Seaboirgiam Gaelic (Irish)
Seaboirgiam Gaelic (Scottish)
Seeborgium Gaelic (Manx)
Seaborgyum Cornish

— Other Indo-European
Σιμπόργκιο [siborgio] Greek
Սիբորգիում [siborgium] Armenian
Siborgium, ²Seaborgiumi Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
Seaborgiyûm Kurdish
Сиборгий [Siborgi'] Tajik

— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
সিওবোর্গিয়াম [sioborgiẏāma] Bengali
سیبورگیم [sybwrgym] Persian
સીબોર્ગીયમનો [sīborgīyamano] Gujarati
सीबोर्गियम [sīborgiyama] Hindi

Seaborgium Estonian
Seaborgium Finnish
Sziborgium Hungarian
Сиборгий [Siborgij] Komi
Сиборгий [Siborgij] Mari
Seaborgium Võro

Jollotum Azerbaijani
Сиборги [Siborgi] Chuvash
Сиборги [Siborgi] Mongolian
Siborgiyum Turkish
Siborgiy Uzbek

Other (Europe)
Seaborgio Basque
სიბორგიუმი [siborgiumi] Georgian

سيبورجيوم [sībūrghiyūm] Arabic
סיבורגיום [siborgium] Hebrew
Seaborgju Maltese

-- Hakka
シーボーギウム [sībōgiumu] Japanese
새보쥼 [saebojyum] Korean
ชีบอรเกียม [sībokiam] Thai
Seaborgi Vietnamese
金喜 [xi3 / hei2] Chinese

Seaborgyo Cebuano
Seaborgium Indonesian
Seaborgium Māori
Seaborgium Malay

Other Asiatic
സീബോര്‍ഗിയം [sībōrgiyam] Malayalam
சீபோர்ஜியம் [cīpōrjiyam] Tamil

Seabodu? Lingala
Seaborgiamo Sesotho
Seaborgi Swahili

Seaborgio Nahuatl

Seaborgyu Quechua

Siborgimi Sranan Tongo

Seborgio Esperanto

New names
Seborgon Atomic Elements
Juneium Dorseyville
memory peg

Artificial radioactive element
melting point -- °C; -- °F
boiling point -- °C; -- °F
density -- g/cc; -- pounds/cubic foot
1974 Albert Ghiorso and co-workers, Berkeley, Calif., USA
Glenn T. Seaborg (1912-1999)

History & Etymology

First prepared in 1974, by Albert Ghiorso, J.M. Nitschke, J.R. Alonso, C.T. Alonso, M. Nurmia, E. Kenneth Hulet, R.W. Lougheed, and Glenn T. Seaborg at the Berkeley Laboratory of the University of California, simultaneously with the () - Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) at (Dubna). The Russian experiments involved the bombardment of Lead isotopes with Chromium-54 ions while the American performed the collision of Oxygen ions with Californium-249 ions. However, it was not until 1993 that its existence was confirmed by the American university. The TWG gave full credit for the discovery of 106 to the Ghiorso-Hulet team. Although the Transfermium Working Group ruled that LBL and the Russian group should share credit for the discovery of elements 104 and 105 (a decision with which Seaborg and Ghiorso disagreed)

The systematic IUPAC name was Unnilhexium (Unh). The idea to name it Seaborgium came from Al Ghiorsio. Seaborg says in his autobiography, more about this naming (note) :

...we were given credit for the discovery and the accompanying right to name the new element. The eight members of the Ghiorso group suggested a wide range of names honoring Isaac Newton, Thomas Edison, Leonardo da Vinci, Ferdinand Magellan, the mythical Ulysses, George Washington, and Finland, the native land of a member of the team. There was no focus and no front-runner for a long period.
Then one day Al [Ghiorsio] walked into my office and asked what I thought of naming element 106 "seaborgium." I was floored.

The name Seaborgium and symbol Sg was announced at the 207th national meeting of the American Chemical Society in San Diego in March 1994. The announcement was made by Kenneth Hulet, retired chemist from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and one of the co-discoverers of Seaborgium. The ACS's own nomenclature committee promptly adopted the name. However, in August 1994 the 20-member IUPAC nomenclature committee, prior to voting on nomenclature, adopted a new rule that no element should be named for a living person. Although this has happened in the past with Einsteinium and Fermium in 1952/53. Consequently, they rejected the name Seaborgium for element #106 and proposed Rutherfordium (Rf). One of the Americans on the committee defended the decision to ignore the wishes of 106's discoverers in the Chemical & Engineering News of October 1994 (note):

"Discoverers don't have a right to name an element. They have a right to suggest a name. And, of course, we didn't infringe on that at all."
However, as Glenn T. Seaborg noted in the Chemical & Engineering News article,
"This would be the first time in history that the acknowledged and uncontested discoverers of an element are denied the privilege of naming it."

Finally, after much discussion, in 1997 a compromise was made and the name Seaborgium was ratified by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Council meeting in Geneva during August 1997 (see "Naming the transfermium elements" on the IUPAC names page).

Variant names of elements 104-108
No.syst. IUPACIUPAC 1997proposals
104Unq UnnilquadiumRf RutherfordiumDb Dubnium (1)
Ku Kurchatovium (3)
105Unp UnnilpentiumDb DubniumJo Joliotium (1)
Ha Hahnium (2)
Ns Nielsbohrium (3)
106Unh UnnilhexiumSg SeaborgiumRf Rutherfordium (1)
107Uns UnnilseptiumBh Bohrium (1)Ns Nielsbohrium (2, 4)
108Uno UnniloctiumHs Hassium (4)Ha Hahnium (1)
(1) IUPAC 1994; (2) ACS 1994; (3) (JINR); (4) GSI 1992
See "Naming the transfermium elements"

Glenn Seaborg
Glenn Theodore Seaborg (originally in Swedish: Glenn Teodor Sjöberg) (Ishpeming, Michigan, 19 April 1912- Lafayette, California, 25 February 1999), American scientist who won the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements,"[1] contributed to the discovery and isolation of ten elements, developed the actinide concept, which led to the current arrangement of the actinoid series in the periodic table of the elements. He spent most of his career as an educator and research scientist at the University of California, Berkeley where he became the second Chancellor in its history and served as a University Professor (note).

He was involved in the discovery of the elements 93 through 102: these discoveries made the greatest changes in the periodic table since the time of Mendeleyev. From 1961 to 1971 he was head of the Atomic Energy Commission. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry with Edwin McMillan in 1951.

About the naming, Glenn Seaborg himself wrote in 1994:

"I am, needless to say, proud that U.S. chemists recommended that element 106, which is placed under tungsten (74), be called 'seaborgium.' I was looking forward to the day when chemical investigators will refer to such compounds as seaborgous chloride, seaborgic nitrate, and perhaps, sodium seaborgate." (note)
and also
"This is the greatest honor ever bestowed upon me--even better, I think, than winning the Nobel Prize, Future students of chemistry, in learning about the periodic table, may have reason to ask why the element was named for me, and thereby learn more about my work." (note)

Jeffrey Winters wrote in January 1998 in Discover Magazine:

"Not only is Seaborg the first living scientist to have an element named after him, hes also the only person who could receive mail addressed only in elements: Seaborgium, Lawrencium (for the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory where he still works), Berkelium, Californium, Americium. But dont forget the zip code." (note)

Further reading
  • Glenn T. Seaborg, Transuranium elements: A Half Century. Remarks at ACS Symposium to Commemorate the 50th Anniversary of Transuranium Elements, Washington D.C., August 27, 1990. (PDF-file available on-line).
  • Seaborgium: Element 106 named in honor of Glenn T. Seaborg, LBL's associate director at large (on-line).
  • Lynn Yarris, Naming of element 106 disputed by international committee. October 14, 1994 (on-line).
  • Glenn Seaborg: His life and contributions. (on-line).

Sources Index of Persons Index of Alleged Elements