56. Barium - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

This site comprises 120 pages of text and photos, one for each element, and several pages for access. – For captions or explanatory texts move your mouse over illustrations, links etc.

Barium – Barium – Baryum – Bario – バリウム – Барий – 鋇
Multilingual dictionary

Barium Latin

— Germanic
Barium Afrikaans
Barium Danish
Barium German
Barium English
Barium Faroese
Barium Frisian (West)
Barín Icelandic
Barium Luxembourgish
Barium Dutch
Barium Norwegian
Barium Swedish

— Italic
Bario Aragonese
Bariumu Aromanian
Bariu Asturian
Bari Catalan
Bario Spanish
Baryum French
Bari Friulian
Bario Galician
Bario Italian
Bàri Lombard
Bari Occitan
Bário Portuguese
Bariu Romanian - Moldovan

— Slavic
Барий [Barij] Bulgarian
Barij[um] Bosnian
Барый [baryj] Belarusian
Baryum Czech
Barij Croatian
Bar Kashubian
Бариум [Barium] Macedonian
Bar Polish
Барий [Barij] Russian
Bárium Slovak
Barij Slovenian
Баријум [Barijum] Serbian
Барій [barij] Ukrainian

— Baltic
Baris Lithuanian
Bārijs Latvian
Baris Samogitian

— Celtic
Bariom Breton
Bariwm Welsh
Bairiam Gaelic (Irish)
Bairiam Gaelic (Scottish)
Baarium Gaelic (Manx)
Baryum Cornish

— Other Indo-European
Βαριο [vario] Greek
Բարիում [barium] Armenian
Barium Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
Baryûm Kurdish
Барий [barij] Ossetian
Барий [Bari'] Tajik

— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
বেরিয়াম [beriẏāma] Bengali
باریم [barym] Persian
બેરિયમનો [beriyamano] Gujarati
बेरियम [beriyama] Hindi

Baarium Estonian
Barium Finnish
Bárium Hungarian
Барий [Barij] Komi
Барий [Barij] Mari
Бари [bari] Moksha
Baarium Võro

Barium Azerbaijani
Бари [Bari] Chuvash
Барий [barij] Kazakh
Барий [Barij] Kyrgyz
Бари [bari] Mongolian
Baryum Turkish
بارىي [bariy] Uyghur
Bariy Uzbek

Other (Europe)
Barioa Basque
ბარიუმი [bariumi] Georgian

باريوم [bāriyūm] Arabic
בריום [barium] Hebrew
Barju[m] Maltese

Pi (鋇) Hakka
バリウム [bariumu] Japanese
바륨 [baryum] Korean
แบเรียม [baeriam] Thai
Bari Vietnamese
[bei4 / booi3] Chinese

Baryo Cebuano
Barium Indonesian
Konu-okehu Māori
Barium Malay

Other Asiatic
ബേരിയം [bēriyam] Malayalam
பேரியம் [pēriyam] Tamil

Balu Lingala
Bariamo Sesotho
Bari Swahili

Bario Nahuatl

Baryu Quechua

Barimi Sranan Tongo

Bario Esperanto

New names
Barion Atomic Elements
Bolognium Dorseyville
memory peg

Deep gray metal which oxidizes very rapidly to form a white/black coating
melting point 725 °C; 1337 °F
boiling point 1640 °C; 2984 °F
density 3.5 g/cc; 218.5 pounds/cubic foot
1808 Sir Humphry Davy, England
βαρυς (barys) = heavy (Greek)

History & Etymology

The shoemaker, or better alchemist, Vincenzo Cascariolo in the city of Bologna (Italy) passion was to find the "philosopher's stone," a way of turning common metals into Gold. About 1602, he heated a mixture of powdered coal and heavy spar (Barium sulphate, BaSO4), spread it over an Iron bar, and let it cool. The Iron did not turn to gold. But when he took the bar in a dark room, he was astonished to see it glow! Though the light eventually faded, Cascariolo found that repeated exposure to the sun "reanimated" the bar. The alchemist had discovered the phosphorescence of the combustion products of an heavy spar, but for him the process was shrouded in mystery. All across Italy, the new compound was known simply as lapis solaris, or "sun stone". Later it would be called Stone of Bologna (cf. Phosphorus).

In 1772, the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) noticed that pyrolusite (Braunstein, MnO2) contained embedded small crystals and recognized them as a new earth (oxide, BaO). Two years later Johan Gottlieb Gahn (1745-1818) in Falun, found the same oxide in heavy spar (in German "Schwerspat", BaSO4). Scheele called it Schwerspatherde (= earth of heavy spar). This "heavy earth" was named by Louis Bernard Guyton de Morveau (1737-1816) barote, later baryte, from the Greek βαρυς [barys] = heavy. The name was changed by Lavoisier to baryta.

The element was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy. In his paper read for the Royal Society of London on 30 June 1808, he referred to the new alkaline earth metals in this way (note):


The element was also named Barytium (Berzelius 1812), but the shorter form Barium became the finale name. Clark had proposed to name the element Plutonium, after the god of Pluto, but his proposal it was not accepted.

Chemistianity 1873
BARIUM forms Salts of dense gravity,
It is a silvery white metal
That rapidly oxides in air; 'tis ductile,
And melts below redness, though not eas'ly vaporized.
Barium resembles Strontium and Calcium.
J. Carrington Sellars, Chemistianity, 1873, p. 123
Further reading
  • Mary Elvira Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, comp. rev. by Henry M. Leicester (Easton, Pa.: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968), pp. 484-491.
  • Rick Gamble, Son Stone. Cross Current Vol. 26, No. 17 (April 29, 2001) (on-line)

Sources Index of Persons Index of Alleged Elements