76. Osmium - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

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Osmium – Osmium – Osmium – Osmio – オスミウム – Осмий – 鋨
Multilingual dictionary

Osmium Latin

— Germanic
Osmium Afrikaans
Osmium Danish
Osmium German
Osmium English
Osmium Faroese
Osmium Frisian (West)
Osmín Icelandic
Osmium Luxembourgish
Osmium Dutch
Osmium Norwegian
Osmium Swedish

— Italic
Osmio Aragonese
Osmiumu Aromanian
Osmiu Asturian
Osmi Catalan
Osmio Spanish
Osmium French
Osmi Friulian
Osmio Galician
Osmio Italian
Òsmi Lombard
Òsmi Occitan
Ósmio Portuguese
Osmiu Romanian - Moldovan

— Slavic
Осмий [Osmij] Bulgarian
Osmij[um] Bosnian
Осмій [osmij] Belarusian
Osmium Czech
Osmij Croatian
Òsm Kashubian
Осмиум [Osmium] Macedonian
Osm Polish
Осмий [Osmij] Russian
Osmium Slovak
Osmij Slovenian
Осмијум [Osmijum] Serbian
Осмій [osmij] Ukrainian

— Baltic
Osmis Lithuanian
Osmijs Latvian
Uosmis Samogitian

— Celtic
Osmiom Breton
Osmiwm Welsh
Oismiam Gaelic (Irish)
Oismiam Gaelic (Scottish)
Osmium Gaelic (Manx)
Osmyum Cornish

— Other Indo-European
Οσμιο [osmio] Greek
Օսմիում [ōsmium] Armenian
Osmium[i] Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
Osmiyûm Kurdish
Осмий [osmij] Ossetian
Осмий [Osmi'] Tajik

— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
অসমিয়াম [asamiẏāma] Bengali
اوسمیم [awsmym] Persian
ઑસ્મિયમનો [osmiyamano] Gujarati
अस्मियम [asmiyama] Hindi

Osmium Estonian
Osmium Finnish
Ozmium Hungarian
Осмий [Osmij] Komi
Осмий [Osmij] Mari
Осми [osmi] Moksha
Osmium Võro

Osmium Azerbaijani
Осми [Osmi] Chuvash
Осмий [osmij] Kazakh
Осмий [Osmij] Kyrgyz
Осми [osmi] Mongolian
Osmiyum Turkish
ئوسمىي ['osmiy] Uyghur
Osmiy Uzbek

Other (Europe)
Osmioa Basque
ოსმიუმი [osmiumi] Georgian

ازميوم [ūzmiyūm] Arabic
אוסמיום [osmium] Hebrew
Ożmju[m] Maltese

Ngò (鋨) Hakka
オスミウム [osumiumu] Japanese
오스뮴 [oseumyum] Korean
ออสเมียม [osmiam] Thai
Osimi, Osmi Vietnamese
[e2 / oh4] Chinese

Osmyo Cebuano
Osmium Indonesian
Osmium Māori
Osmium Malay

Other Asiatic
ഓസ്മിയം [ōsmiyam] Malayalam
ஒஸ்மியம் [osmiyam] Tamil

Osumu Lingala
Osmiamo Sesotho
Osmi Swahili

Osmio Nahuatl

Osmiyu Quechua

Osmimi Sranan Tongo

Osmio Esperanto

New names
Osmion Atomic Elements
Penium Dorseyville
memory peg

Incredibly dense, blue metal which oxidizes readily in a powdered/sponge form, but not as a solid ingot/pellet
melting point 3045 °C; 5513 °F
boiling point 5027 °C; 9081 °F
density 22.57 g/cc; 1409.00 pounds/cubic foot
1803 Smithson Tennant, England / independent by N.L. Vauquelin, A.-F. Fourcroy, & H.V. Collet-Descotils, France
οσμη (osmè) = stench (Greek)
named by S. Tennant

History & Etymology

William Hyde Wollaston and Smithson Tennant (1761-1815), who had befriended at Cambridge, formed in 1800 a secret partnership to share expenses and income from ventures in commercially production of Platinum (see Platinum).

During their researches into the purification of platinum by dissolution of native platinum ore in aqua regia, a large amount of insoluble black powder remained as a byproduct of this operation. While Wollaston concentrated on the soluble portion and found Palladium (1802), Rhodium (1804). Tennant examined the insoluble residue. In the summer of 1803, Tennant identified two new elements, Osmium (1803) and Iridium (1803). This was documented in the paper he read to the Royal Society on 21 June 1804 (note).

The insoluble, dark residue was melted with alkalis and treated with acid, distilled and then condensed, leading to a greasy liquid, with a strong and peculiar smell, and then to a semi-transparent solid. Tennant showed that this residue contains two metals, Osmium and Iridium. Of this oxide he wrote:

The name Osmium is after the Greek οσμη [osmè] = scent, stench; because of the stark smell of the oxide:
The residue itself was named osmiridium

About the same time, in Paris, suspected Hippolyte Victor Collet-Descotils, the existence of a new metal by the black powder formed by the dissolution of native Platinum in aqua regia. In 1803 Antoine-François de Fourcroy and Nicolas-Louis Vauquelin observed this black powder and came to the conclusion that in the insoluble residue a new metal is present.

In his paper for the Royal Society on the 21 June 1804 Tennant mentioned the parallel research in France by Descotils and Vauquelin. Both chemists found Osmium, "But," wrote Tennant, "neither of these chemists have observed that it contains also another metal, different from any hitherto known." This other metal is osmium (Weeks 1968).
According to some authors, Fourcroy and Vauquelin gave the new substance the name of Ptene, from Greek πτηνος (ptènos) = winged (See Iridium).

Chemistianity 1873
OSMIUM, Platinum's fickle associate,
In pulverulent state is black, in compact state
Is a dark gray, moderately lustrous, metal
Sufficiently mall'able to be roll'd.
Osmium is soon powder'd, and promptly inflamed,
Burning with powerful offensive odour
That resembles Chlorine or Iodine.
J. Carrington Sellars, Chemistianity, 1873, p. 187
Further reading
  • Griffith, W.P., Bicentenary of Four Platinum Group Metals, Part II: Osmium and Iridium events surrounding their discoveries. In: Platinum Metals Review 48, 4 (October 2004): 182-189 (on-line).
  • International Platinum Association, Osmium History (on-line).
  • Platinum. Gmelins Handbuch der anorganische Chemie, 8. Aufl.; System-Nummer 68 (1951), Pt. A. pp. 12-13.
  • Tennant, Smithson, "On two Metals, found in the black powder remaining after the solution of Platina." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 95 (1805), 411-418.
  • Weeks, Mary Elvira, Discovery of the Elements, comp. rev. by Henry M. Leicester (Easton, Pa.: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968), pp. 414-418.

Sources Index of Persons Index of Alleged Elements