75. Rhenium - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

This site comprises 120 pages of text and photos, one for each element, and several pages for access. – For captions or explanatory texts move your mouse over illustrations, links etc.

Rhenium – Rhenium – Rhénium – Renio – レニウム – Рений – 錸
Multilingual dictionary

Rhenium Latin

— Germanic
Rhenium Afrikaans
Rhenium Danish
Rhenium German
Rhenium English
Renium Faroese
Rhenium Frisian (West)
Renín Icelandic
Rhenium Luxembourgish
Rhenium Dutch
Rhenium Norwegian
Rhenium Swedish

— Italic
Renio Aragonese
Reniumu Aromanian
Reniu Asturian
Reni Catalan
Renio Spanish
Rhénium French
Reni Friulian
Renio Galician
Renio Italian
Réni Lombard
Reni Occitan
Rénio Portuguese
Reniu Romanian - Moldovan

— Slavic
Рений [Renij] Bulgarian
Renij[um] Bosnian
Рэній [rènij] Belarusian
Rhenium Czech
Renij Croatian
Rén Kashubian
Рениум [Renium] Macedonian
Ren Polish
Рений [Renij] Russian
Rhenium Slovak
Renij Slovenian
Ренијум [Renijum] Serbian
Реній [renij] Ukrainian

— Baltic
Renis Lithuanian
Rēnijs Latvian
Renis Samogitian

— Celtic
Reniom Breton
Rheniwm Welsh
Réiniam Gaelic (Irish)
Rèiniam Gaelic (Scottish)
Rainium Gaelic (Manx)
Rhenyum Cornish

— Other Indo-European
Ρηνιο [rinio] Greek
Ռենիում [ŗenium] Armenian
Renium, ²Rheniumi Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
Renyûm Kurdish
Рений [renij] Ossetian
Рений [Reni'] Tajik

— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
রেনিয়াম [reniẏāma] Bengali
رنیم [rnym] Persian
રીનિયમનો [rīniyamano] Gujarati
रेनियम [reniyama] Hindi

Reenium Estonian
Renium Finnish
Rénium Hungarian
Рений [Renij] Komi
Рений [Renij] Mari
Рени [reni] Moksha
Reenium Võro

Renium Azerbaijani
Рени [Reni] Chuvash
Рений [renij] Kazakh
Рений [Renij] Kyrgyz
Рени [reni] Mongolian
Renyum Turkish
رېنىي [reniy] Uyghur
Reniy Uzbek

Other (Europe)
Renioa Basque
რენიუმი [reniumi] Georgian

رنيوم [rīniyūm] Arabic
רניום [renium] Hebrew
Rinjum, ²Renju Maltese

Lòi (錸) Hakka
レニウム [reniumu] Japanese
레늄 [renyum] Korean
รีเนียม [rīniam] Thai
Reni Vietnamese
[lai2 / loi4] Chinese

Renyo Cebuano
Renium Indonesian
Rhenium Māori
Renium Malay

Other Asiatic
റിനിയം [ṟiniyam] Malayalam
ரெனியம் [reṉiyam] Tamil

Lenu? Lingala
Reniamo Sesotho
Reni Swahili

Renio Nahuatl

Renyu Quechua

Renimi Sranan Tongo

Renio Esperanto

New names
Renion Atomic Elements
Onemillunarium Dorseyville
memory peg

Dense, reflective precious metal
melting point 3180 °C; 5756 °F
boiling point 5627 °C; 10161 °F
density 21.02 g/cc; 1312.24 pounds/cubic foot
1925 (1908) Walter & Ida Noddack & Otto Berg, Germany (earlier in 1908 by Masataka Ogawa, Japan)
Rheinland (Rhineland), region in Germany

History & Etymology

Element #75 was isolated in 1908 by the Japanese chemist Masataka Ogawa and named Nipponium. He inadequately assigned it as element #43 (Technetium). From the modern chemical viewpoint it has to be considered to be element 75. (note).

In 1925 the discovery of elements #43 (Medeleyev's Eka-Manganese) and #75 (Dvi-Manganese), the last missing elements on the main periodic table, was announced by Walter Noddack (1893-1960), Ida Eva Tacke (1896-1978, she married in 1926 Walter Noddack) and Otto Berg (1873-).

Platinum ores were known to contain elements #24-29, 44-47, and 76-79, while rare-earth minerals (columbite, gadolinite) contain elements #39-42 and 72-74. Noddack and Tacke at the Physico-Technical Testing Office in Berlin started in 1922 with their attempts to separate elements #43 and #75, first from Platinum ore, but since that was too costly, soon continued with the rare-earth minerals. The X-ray specialist Otto Berg at Werner-Siemens Laboratory did the identification. The team found weak X-ray spectral lines when electrons excited the elements. After three years research, element #75 was separated from gadolinite and named Rhenium (Latin for the River Rhine), after the Rheinland (Rhineland), the homeland of Ida Tacke (she was born in Lackhausen/Wesel).

Shortly afterwards they separated element #43 and named it Masurium after Noddack's homeland, the Masurian province. Therefore, some historians of chemistry consider that both names contain a large dosis of nationalism: the Rhine region and the Masurian swamps were during the First World War the most succesful battle places for the German troops. Their discovery of Masurium was not confirmed (see Technetium). By working up 660 kg of molybdenite they were able in 1928 to extract 1 g of Rhenium.


About the same time, element #75 was also discovered, independently by the British investigators F.H. Loring and J.F.G. Druce in manganese sulphate, and by the Czechs Jaroslav Heyrovský (1890-1967) and V. Dolejsek. I found no further information on these claims.

The Rhine (German: Rhein; Dutch: Rijn; French: Rhin; Romansh: Rain; Italian: Reno; Latin: Rhenus; West Frisian Ryn) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe, at 1,320 km (820 mi), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 m3/s (71,000 cu ft/s).

The name of the Rhine derives from Gaulish Renos, and ultimately from the Proto-Indo-European root *reie- ("to move, flow, run"), which is also the root of words like river and run. The Reno River in Italy shares the same etymology. The spelling with -h- seems to be borrowed from the Greek form of the name, Rhenos, seen also in rheos, stream, and rhein, to flow (note).

The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) today is the general name for areas along the river Rhine between Bingen and the Dutch border. To the west the area stretches to the borders with Luxemburg, Belgium and the Netherlands; on the eastern side it only encompasses the towns and cities along the river. Except for the Saar this area more or less corresponds with the modern use of the term (note).

Further reading
  • Mary Elvira Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, comp. rev. by Henry M. Leicester (Easton, Pa.: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968), pp. 823-827.

Sources Index of Persons Index of Alleged Elements