59. Praseodymium - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

This site comprises 120 pages of text and photos, one for each element, and several pages for access. – For captions or explanatory texts move your mouse over illustrations, links etc.

Praseodymium – Praseodym – Praséodyme – Prosedímio – プラセオジム – Празеодим – 鐠
Multilingual dictionary

Praseodymium Latin

— Germanic
Praseodimium Afrikaans
Praseodymium Danish
Praseodym German
Praseodymium English
Praseodymium Faroese
Praseodymium Frisian (West)
Praseódým Icelandic
Praseodym Luxembourgish
Praseodymium Dutch
Praseodym Norwegian
Praseodym Swedish

— Italic
Praseodimio Aragonese
Prazeoodimiumu Aromanian
Praseodimiu Asturian
Praseodimi Catalan
Prosedímio Spanish
Praséodyme French
Praseodimi Friulian
Praseodimio Galician
Praseodimio Italian
Praseudími Lombard
Praseodimi Occitan
Praseodímio Portuguese
Praseodim Romanian - Moldovan

— Slavic
Празеодим [Prazeodim] Bulgarian
Praseodymijum, ²Praseodimij Bosnian
Празеадым [prazeadym] Belarusian
Praseodym Czech
Praseodimij Croatian
Prazeòdim Kashubian
Празеодимиум [Prazeodimium] Macedonian
Prazeodym Polish
Празеодим [Prazeodim] Russian
Prazeodým Slovak
Prazeodim Slovenian
Празеодијум [Prazeodijum] Serbian
Празеодим [prazeodym] Ukrainian

— Baltic
Prazeodimis Lithuanian
Praseodīms Latvian
Prazeoduomis Samogitian

— Celtic
Prazeodim Breton
Praseodiwm Welsh
Praiséidimiam Gaelic (Irish)
Praiseoidimiam Gaelic (Scottish)
Prashodymmium Gaelic (Manx)
Prasodyum Cornish

— Other Indo-European
Πρασεοδυμιο [praseodymio] Greek
Պրազեդիում [prazedium] Armenian
Prazeodim, ²Praseodymi Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
Praseodmyûm Kurdish
Празеодий [prazeodij] Ossetian
Празеодим [Prazeodim] Tajik

— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
প্র্যাসেওডিমিয়াম [pryāseoḍimiẏāma] Bengali
پرازئودیمیم [prazywdymym] Persian
પ્રેસિઓડિનિયમનો [presioḍiniyamano] Gujarati
प्रासियोडाइमियम [prāsiyoḍāimiyama] Hindi

Praseodüüm Estonian
Praseodyymi Finnish
Prazeodímium Hungarian
Празеодим [Prazeodim] Komi
Празеодим [Prazeodim] Mari
Праседими [prasedimi] Moksha
Praseodüüm Võro

Prazeodim Azerbaijani
Празеодим [Prazeodim] Chuvash
Празеодий [prazeodij] Kazakh
Празеодий [Prazeodij] Kyrgyz
Празеодим [prazeodim] Mongolian
Praseodim Turkish
پرازېئودىمىي [praze'odimiy] Uyghur
Prazeodim Uzbek

Other (Europe)
Praseodimioa Basque
პრაზეოდიმი [prazeodimi] Georgian

براسوديميوم [brīziyūdīmiyūm] Arabic
פרסיאודימיום [praseodimium] Hebrew
Praseodimju[m] Maltese

Phú (鐠) Hakka
プラセオジム [puraseojimu] Japanese
프라세오디뮴 [peurase'odimyum] Korean
เพรซิโอดิเมียม [prēsiodimiam] Thai
Prazeođim Vietnamese
[pu3 / po2] Chinese

Praseodimyo Cebuano
Praseodinium Indonesian
Praseodymium Māori
Praseodimium Malay

Other Asiatic
പ്രസിയോഡൈമിയം [prasiyōḍaimiyam] Malayalam
-- [--] Tamil

Padimu Lingala
Praseodymiamo Sesotho
Praseodimi Swahili

Praseodimio Nahuatl

Praseodimyu Quechua

Praseodimimi Sranan Tongo

Prazeodimo Esperanto

New names
Praseon Atomic Elements
Gelbinium Dorseyville
memory peg

Reflective gray metal which forms a dark green colored oxide
melting point 931 °C; 17078 °F
boiling point 3512 °C; 6354 °F
density 6.77 g/cc; 422.82 pounds/cubic foot
1885 Carl Auer von Welsbach, Austria
πρασιος + διδυμος (prasios + didymos) = green + twins (Greek), element with green oxide found in Didymium

History & Etymology

After he had discovered Lanthanum in 1839, in a sample of ceria, Carl Gustav Mosander (1797-1858) became convinced that there existed a third element in this earth. Its amethyst colour was distinctly different from the white and yellow colours of pure Lanthanum and Cerium salts. Mosander did not wanted to announce his new "discovery" prematurely, but since Theodor Scheerer (1813-1875) in Norway was analyzing gadolinite and could conclude the same thing, Mosander presented his observation at the Scandinavian Meeting of Natural Scientists in Stockholm in July 1842. In fact, Scheerer presented his results at the same meeting but only vaguely suggested that yttria might contain another element.

Because it closely resembled Lanthanum and had been discovered in conjunction with it, Mosander suggested to name the new element Didymium, from the Greek διδυμος (didymos) = twins). Friedrich Wöhler, although he was a good friend of both Berzelius and Mosander, objected the name. In German, Didym sounds rather childish and silly. Also is said that he thought it had been given because Mosander had four children, all born as twins. However, Mosander did not want to change it, since he intentionally looked for a name beginning with D in order to have a symbol unlike those for other metals.
Despite this, the name Didymium was in used for over 40 years.

A number of chemists believed that Didymium was a mixture of elements and in 1879 François Lecoq de Boisbaudran showed that it contained Samarium. In 1885 the Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach (18581929) separated the residual Didymium after removal of Samarium, into two elements (note): Neodymium (new twin) and Praseodymium (green twin), so retaining a part of the original name, with a new suffix. Praseodymium gots its name from πρασιος [prasios] = light green, leek-green, because of the green oxyde. (cf. Neodymium). Lecoq found independently a third element in Didymium: Gadolinium.

John and Gordon Marks suggested in 1994 the name Berzelium (Bz), after Berzelius, according to them the discoverer of this element and the difficult properties (especially the chemistry of separation) of the lanthanides. The Marks brothers found the old names ugly and confusing. They offered alternative names that are equivalent contemporary (at the time and place of discovery) metaphors, both more euphonious and more memorable (note).

See also: Chronological list of discovery of the rare earths and their names

Chemistianity 1873
DIDYMIUM, Lanthanum's twin metal,
Is a grayish metal that water oxides.
Concentrated solutions of its Salts are red.
J. Carrington Sellars, Chemistianity, 1873, 132
(written twelve years before Didymium
was split into Praseodymium and Neodymium)
Further reading
  • Mary Elvira Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, comp. rev. by Henry M. Leicester (Easton, Pa.: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968), pp. 667-699.
  • Seltene Erden. Gmelins Handbuch der anorganische Chemie, 8. Aufl.; System-Nummer 39 (1938).
  • Lauri Niinistö, Swedish Contributions to the Discovery of Elements: Part 3: The Work of Mosander, Cleve and Nilson. ERES Newsletter, vol. 12, no. 1 (30 June 2001). (on-line).
  • Robert Plohn, "Seltene Erden". Zeitschrift 'Die Koralle', Sept. 1929 (on-line).

Sources Index of Persons Index of Alleged Elements