81. Thallium - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

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81
Thallium
Thallium – Thallium – Thallium – Talio – タリウム – Таллий – 鉈
Tl
Multilingual dictionary

Indo-European
Thallium Latin

— Germanic
Tallium Afrikaans
Thallium Danish
Thallium German
Thallium English
Thallium Faroese
Thallium Frisian (West)
Þallín Icelandic
Thallium Luxembourgish
Thallium Dutch
Thallium Norwegian
Tallium Swedish

— Italic
Talio Aragonese
Taliumu Aromanian
Taliu Asturian
Tal·li Catalan
Talio Spanish
Thallium French
Tali Friulian
Talio Galician
Tallio Italian
Tàli Lombard
Talli Occitan
Tálio Portuguese
Taliu Romanian - Moldovan

— Slavic
Таллий [Tallij] Bulgarian
Talij[um] Bosnian
Талій [talij] Belarusian
Thallium Czech
Talij Croatian
Tôl Kashubian
Талиум [Talium] Macedonian
Tal Polish
Таллий [Tallij] Russian
Thallium Slovak
Talij Slovenian
Талијум [Talijum] Serbian
Талій [talij] Ukrainian

— Baltic
Talis Lithuanian
Tallijs Latvian
Talis Samogitian

— Celtic
Taliom Breton
Thaliwm Welsh
Tailliam Gaelic (Irish)
Tailliam Gaelic (Scottish)
Thallium Gaelic (Manx)
Thalyum Cornish

— Other Indo-European
Θαλλιο [thallio] Greek
Թալիում [t'alium] Armenian
Talium, ²Thalliumi Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
Talyûm Kurdish
Таллий [tallij] Ossetian
Таллий [Talli'] Tajik

— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
থ্যালিয়াম [thyāliẏāma] Bengali
تالیم [talym] Persian
થૅલિયમનો [theliyamano] Gujarati
थैलियम [thailiyama] Hindi

Finno-Ugric
Tallium Estonian
Tallium Finnish
Tallium Hungarian
Таллий [Tallij] Komi
Таллий [Tallij] Mari
Тали [tali] Moksha
Tallium Võro

Altaic
Tallium Azerbaijani
Талли [Talli] Chuvash
Таллий [tallij] Kazakh
Таллий [Tallij] Kyrgyz
Талли [talli] Mongolian
Talyum Turkish
تاللىي [talliy] Uyghur
Talliy Uzbek

Other (Europe)
Talioa Basque
თალიუმი [t'aliumi] Georgian

Afro-Asiatic
ثاليوم [thāliyūm] Arabic
תליום [thalium] Hebrew
Tallju[m] Maltese

Sino-Tibetan
Thò (鉈) Hakka
タリウム [tariumu] Japanese
탈륨 [tallyum] Korean
แทลเลียม [thaelliam/thaenliam] Thai
Tali Vietnamese
[she2 / ta1] Chinese

Malayo-Polynesian
Talyo Cebuano
Tallium Indonesian
Thallium Māori
Talium Malay

Other Asiatic
താലിയം [tāliyam] Malayalam
தல்லியம் [talliyam] Tamil

Africa
Talu Lingala
Talliamo Sesotho
Tali Swahili

North-America
Talio Nahuatl

South-America
Thalyu Quechua

Creole
Talimi Sranan Tongo

Artificial
Talio Esperanto

New names
Talion Atomic Elements
Pyritium Dorseyville
memory peg

A soft, gray metal which readily oxidizes upon exposure to the atmosphere
melting point 303 °C; 578 °F
boiling point 1457 °C; 2655 °F
density 11.85 g/cc; 739.77 pounds/cubic foot
1861 Sir William Crookes, England
θαλλος (thallos) = green shoot (Greek)

History & Etymology

Very soon after Bunsen and Kirchhoff announced the discovery of Rubidium (1861), Sir William Crookes (1832-1919) entered in 1848 the Royal College of Chemistry, London, where he became assistant to August Wilhelm von Hofmann (1818-1892) and began his chemical researches including those in spectroscopy. In 1851, at age 19, published his first paper, selenocyanides. For this paper he had examined some residues from a sulfuric acid plant at Tilkerode in the Harz (German), given to him by one of his teachers because they contained Selenium which could be turned to selenocyanides. Crookes saved the residues because he thought they might also contain Tellurium.

About ten year later, on examining the residues with a spectroscope he found no lines of Tellurium, and the lines of Selenium soon faded. But a beautiful green line appeared that he have never previously seen. He concluded the residues must contain a new element. This green stripe reminded Crookes, the color of the vegetation in Spring and therefore he named it Thallium, after the Greek θαλλος [thallos] = green shoot or twig (the Latin thallos is a loan word from the Greek). Crookes announced the discovery in the 30 March 1861 Chemical News which he started in 1859 and was the sole editor until 1906.

Almost simultaneously Claude-Auguste Lamy (1820-1878) examined some slime from a sulfuric acid plant at Loos which was using Belgian pyrite and observed the green spectral line. He extracted thallium sesquichloride and isolated the metal new by electrolysis. Only after his discovery, he found out that Crookes had earlier discovered and named the new element, and gave Crookes the honour. Crookes presumed that his Thallium was something of the order of Sulphur, Selenium or Tellurium but Lamy found it to be a metal. In April 1862 he reported to the French Académie des sciences (note):

Historical names of Thallium isotopes
Name & Symbol (hist. and modern) First described Notes
Radium-C'' Ra C'' 210Tl 1909 Hahn & Meitner  
Thorium-C'' Th C'' 208Tl 1909 Hahn & Meitner  
Actinium-C'' Ac C'' 207Tl 1908 Hahn & Meitner  
Radium-E'' Ra E'' 206Tl      

Chemistianity 1873
UMYAN
THALLIUM, a metal of mongrel qualities,
Physically closely resembles Lead,
It has bluish white lustre, and soon oxides in Air,
It can be cut with knife or pressed into wire,
Streaks paper like Plumbago, crackles like Tin.
J. Carrington Sellars, Chemistianity, 1873, p. 159
Further reading

  • Mary Elvira Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, comp. rev. by Heny M. Leicester (Easton, Pa.: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968), pp. 607-613.
  • Frank James, "The Letters of William Crookes to Charles Hanson Greville Williams 1861-2: The Detection and Isolation of Thallium." Ambix, 1981, 28: 131-157.

Sources Index of Persons Index of Alleged Elements