88. Radium - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

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88
Radium
Radium – Radium – Radium – Radio – ラジウム – Радий – 鐳
Ra
Multilingual dictionary

Indo-European
Radium Latin

— Germanic
Radium Afrikaans
Radium Danish
Radium German
Radium English
Radium Faroese
Radium Frisian (West)
Radín Icelandic
Radium Luxembourgish
Radium Dutch
Radium Norwegian
Radium Swedish

— Italic
Radio Aragonese
Radiumu Aromanian
Radiu Asturian
Radi Catalan
Radio Spanish
Radium French
Radi Friulian
Radio Galician
Radio Italian
Ràdi Lombard
Radi Occitan
Rádio Portuguese
Radiu Romanian - Moldovan

— Slavic
Радий [Radij] Bulgarian
Radij[um] Bosnian
Радый [radyj] Belarusian
Radium Czech
Radij Croatian
Rôd Kashubian
Радиум [Radium] Macedonian
Rad Polish
Радий [Radij] Russian
Radium Slovak
Radij Slovenian
Радијум [Radijum] Serbian
Радій [radij] Ukrainian

— Baltic
Radis Lithuanian
Rādijs Latvian
Radis Samogitian

— Celtic
Radiom Breton
Radiwm Welsh
Raidiam Gaelic (Irish)
Raidiam Gaelic (Scottish)
Raadjum Gaelic (Manx)
Radyum Cornish

— Other Indo-European
Ραδιο [radio] Greek
Ռադիում [ŗadium] Armenian
Radium[i] Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
Radyûm Kurdish
Радий [radij] Ossetian
Радий [Radi'] Tajik

— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
রেডিয়াম [reḍiẏāma] Bengali
رادیم [radym] Persian
રેડિયમનો [reḍiyamano] Gujarati
रेडियम [reḍiyama] Hindi

Finno-Ugric
Raadium Estonian
Radium Finnish
Rádium Hungarian
Радий [Radij] Komi
Радий [Radij] Mari
Ради [radi] Moksha
Raadium Võro

Altaic
Radium Azerbaijani
Ради [Radi] Chuvash
Радий [radij] Kazakh
Радий [Radij] Kyrgyz
Ради [radi] Mongolian
Radyum Turkish
رادىي [radiy] Uyghur
Radiy Uzbek

Other (Europe)
Radioa Basque
რადიუმი [radiumi] Georgian

Afro-Asiatic
راديوم [rādiyūm] Arabic
רדיום [radium] Hebrew
Radju[m] Maltese

Sino-Tibetan
Luì (鐳) Hakka
ラジウム [rajiumu] Japanese
라듐 [radyum] Korean
เรเดียม [rēdiam] Thai
Rađi Vietnamese
[lei2 / lui4] Chinese

Malayo-Polynesian
Radyo Cebuano
Radium Indonesian
Konuruke Māori
Radium Malay

Other Asiatic
റേഡിയം [ṟēḍiyam] Malayalam
ரேடியம் [rēţiyam] Tamil

Africa
Ladu Lingala
Radiamo Sesotho
Radi Swahili

North-America
Radio Nahuatl

South-America
Radyu q'illay Quechua

Creole
Radimi Sranan Tongo

Artificial
Radiumo Esperanto

New names
Radion Atomic Elements
Curum Dorseyville
memory peg

Radioactive brilliant white metal
melting point 700 °C; 1292 °F
boiling point 1140 °C; 2084 °F
density 5? g/cc; 312? pounds/cubic foot
1898 Pierre & Marie Curie, France
radius = ray (Latin)

History & Etymology

On 26 December 1898, Pierre and Marie Curie announced the discovery of this element. It had been distinguished from Polonium due to the likeliness of its chemical properties with those of Barium. Its sulfate and carbonate were insoluble and the chloride was soluble in water but insoluble in hydrochloride acid or in alcohol. However, this element was not identical to Barium, and could easily be separated. They named it Radium, after the Latin radius = ray, because the radiation is 3 millions times as much as that of Uranium (note).

Some years later, in 1902, Marie Curie performed a series of fractional crystallizations starting from a considerable amount of uraninite residues, and was able to isolate about 0,1 grams of chloride of almost pure Radium, with an activity about 3 million greater than that of uranium.

The announcement of the discovery of Polonium and of Radium triggered a series of research works, leading to the discovery of another radioactive elements associated to Uranium and Thorium.

Isotopes with the historical name Radium-...
NameHist. symb.Mod. symb.
Radium Ra 226Ra
Radium Emanation Ra Em 222Rn
Radium-A Ra A 218Po
Radium-B Ra B 214Pb
Radium-C Ra C 214Bi
Radium-C' Ra C' 214Po
Radium-C'' Ra C'' 210Tl
Radium-D Ra D 210Pb
Radium-E Ra E 210Bi
Radium-E'' Ra E'' 206Tl
Radium-F Ra F 210Po
Radium-G Ra G 206Pb

Historical names of Radium Isotopes
Name & Symbol (hist. and modern) First described Notes
Mesothorium 1 MsTh1 228Ra 1906/07 B.B. Boltwood Boltwood's Mesothorium split by O. Hahn in Mesothorium 1 and 2 (=228Ac)
Thorium-X Th X 224Ra 1902 E. Rutherford & F. Soddy  
Actinium-X Ac X 223Ra 1905 T. Godlewski  

Further reading
  • Mary Elvira Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, comp. rev. by Heny M. Leicester (Easton, Pa.: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968), pp. 781-783.
  • Radium und Isotope. Gmelins Handbuch der anorganische Chemie, 8. Aufl.; System-Nummer 31 (1928).
  • Winfried Kölzer, Radioaktivität, Strahlenexposition, Strahlenwirkung. Bonn: Informationskreis Kernenergie, 2000 (PDF file on-line).
Hibernium

In some thin samples of certain minerals, notably mica, there can be observed tiny aureoles of discoloration which, on microscopic examination, prove to be concentric dark and light circles with diameters between about 10 and 40 mm and centered on a tiny inclusion. These so-called "pleochronic halos" were first reported between 1880 and 1890. Their origin was a mystery until the discovery of radioactivity and its powers of coloration. Scientists in the early 20th century studied these "pleochronic halos" because they are an integral record of radioactive decay in minerals that constitute the most ancient rocks. Most importantly, this thermal-resistant record is detailed enough to allow estimation of the decay energies involved and to identify the nuclides decaying. This latter possibility is particularly exciting because classes of halos exist which correspond to no known radionuclide. Barring the possibility of a nonradioactive origin, these are evidence for hitherto undiscovered or presently extinct radionuclides. John Joly, a geology professor at Dublin, lost nearly all his halo evidence for an element he called Hibernium (after Hibernia, Latin for Ireland) in the Easter uprising of 1916.

Further reading
  • Marco Fontani, Mariagrazia Costa, and Arnaldo Cinquantini, Dagli aloni pleocroici alla nascita della Terra. RICH-MAC Magazine 85, La Chimica e l'Industria, Ottobre 2003, pp. 65-67.
  • Robert V. Gentry, Radioactive Halos. Annual Review of Nuclear Science 23 (1973). (on-line).
  • D. Weaire and S. Coonan, The parrot, the pince-nez and the pleochroic halo. Europhysics News Vol. 32 No. 2 (2001) (on-line).

Sources Index of Persons Index of Alleged Elements