84. Polonium - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

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84
Polonium
Polonium – Polonium – Polonium – Polonio – ポロカウム – Полоний – 釙
Po
Multilingual dictionary

Indo-European
Polonium Latin

— Germanic
Polonium Afrikaans
Polonium Danish
Polonium German
Polonium English
Polonium Faroese
Polonium Frisian (West)
Pólon Icelandic
Polonium Luxembourgish
Polonium Dutch
Polonium Norwegian
Polonium Swedish

— Italic
Polonio Aragonese
Poloniumu Aromanian
Poloniu Asturian
Poloni Catalan
Polonio Spanish
Polonium French
Poloni Friulian
Polonio Galician
Polonio Italian
Pulòni Lombard
Polòni Occitan
Polónio Portuguese
Poloniu Romanian - Moldovan

— Slavic
Полоний [Polonij] Bulgarian
Polonij[um] Bosnian
Палоній [palonij] Belarusian
Polonium Czech
Polonij Croatian
Pòlón Kashubian
Полониум [Polonium] Macedonian
Polon Polish
Полоний [Polonij] Russian
Polonium Slovak
Polonij Slovenian
Полонијум [Polonijum] Serbian
Полоній [polonij] Ukrainian

— Baltic
Polonis Lithuanian
Polonijs Latvian
Poluonis Samogitian

— Celtic
Poloniom Breton
Poloniwm Welsh
Polóiniam Gaelic (Irish)
Polòiniam Gaelic (Scottish)
Polonium Gaelic (Manx)
Polonyum Cornish

— Other Indo-European
Πολωνιο [polōnio] Greek
Պոլոնիում [polonium] Armenian
Polonium[i] Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
Polonyûm Kurdish
Полоний [polonij] Ossetian
Полоний [Poloni'] Tajik

— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
পোলনিয়াম [polaniẏāma] Bengali
پولونیم [pwlwnym] Persian
પોલોનિયમનો [poloniyamano] Gujarati
पोलोनियम [poloniyama] Hindi

Finno-Ugric
Poloonium Estonian
Polonium Finnish
Polónium Hungarian
Полоний [Polonij] Komi
Полоний [Polonij] Mari
Полони [poloni] Moksha
Poloonium Võro

Altaic
Polonium Azerbaijani
Полони [Poloni] Chuvash
Полоний [polonij] Kazakh
Полоний [Polonij] Kyrgyz
Полони [poloni] Mongolian
Polonyum Turkish
پولونىي [poloniy] Uyghur
Poloniy Uzbek

Other (Europe)
Polonioa Basque
პოლონიუმი [poloniumi] Georgian

Afro-Asiatic
بولونيوم [būlūniyūm] Arabic
פולוניום [polonium] Hebrew
Polonju[m] Maltese

Sino-Tibetan
Pho (釙) Hakka
ポロカウム [poroniumu] Japanese
폴로늄 [pollonyum] Korean
พอโลเนียม [pholōniam] Thai
Poloni Vietnamese
[pu2 / pok8] Chinese

Malayo-Polynesian
Polonyo Cebuano
Polonium Indonesian
Polonium Māori
Polonium Malay

Other Asiatic
പൊളോണിയം [poḷōṇiyam] Malayalam
பொலோனியம் [polōṉiyam] Tamil

Africa
Polonu Lingala
Poloniamo Sesotho
Poloni Swahili

North-America
Polonio Nahuatl

South-America
Polonyu Quechua

Creole
Polonimi Sranan Tongo

Artificial
Polonio Esperanto

New names
Polonion Atomic Elements
Curiecium Dorseyville
memory peg

Radioactive metal
melting point 254 °C; 489 °F
boiling point 962 °C; 1764 °F
density 9.32 g/cc; 581.83 pounds/cubic foot
1898 Pierre & Marie Curie, France
Polonia = Polska Poland (Latin)

History & Etymology

In 1898 Pierre Curie (1859-1906) and Marie Curie née Sklodowska (1867-1934) investigated pitchblende from Bohemia, containing to 75% Uranium, and noted that the tar possesses considerably higher radioactivity, than the isolated uranium. So they assumed that it contained one or more new elements of high radioactivity. In July 1898 they made a complete analysis of the pitchblende, which proved to be very complex, since several elements were contained. Two fractions had increased radioactivity: one of them contained salts of Bismuth, another Barium salts. From the Bismuth fraction they isolated a product with a radioactivity 400 times superior to that of Uranium. Thus they conclued that this activity was caused by the presence of salts of some so far unknown metal. They named it Polonium in honor of Marie's native land (Lat. Polonia - Polska). In their laboratory journal the symbol Po (written by Pierre) appears for the first time on 13 July 1898. (note).

Later the existence of Polonium was considered questionable. Polonium was thought to be a radioactive form if Bismuth, and Friedrich O. Giesel called it Radiobismuth ("Radiowismuth", 1899) (note) . In 1902 Willy Marckwald (1864-) verified the analysis of pitchblende with a large quantity of mineral (about 2 tons). He isolated the Bismuth fraction and detected a new element in it, which he named Radiotellurium, since it was strongly radioactive and has properties similar to Tellurium. Salt of Radiotellurium was millions of times more active than Uranium and 1000 times more than Polonium. Already in 1889 Д.И. Менделеев (D.I. Mendeleyev) predicted the existence of an element with such properties and on his assumed position in the periodic system was named Dvi-tellurium (Dt).

Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) established later that Radiotellurium is one of the radioactive decay products of the Uranium family, and had it named Radium-F. In 1905 it became obvious, that Polonium, Radiotellurium and Radium-F are one and the same element, possessing alfa- and gamma/range - by emission and having a half-life period of approximately 140 days.

As a result was acknowledged that the priority of the discovery of the new element belonged to the Curies, and was it finally given the name she proposed.

Historical names of Polonium isotopes

Name & Symbol (hist. and modern) First described Notes
Radium-A Ra A 218Po 1905 William H. Bragg & Richard D. Kleeman  
Thorium-A Th A 216Po 1910/11 Hans W. Geiger, Ernest Marsden & Ernest Rutherford Earlier ThA renamed ThB
Actinium-A Ac A 215Po 1910/11 Hans W. Geiger & Ernest Marsden Earlier AcA renamed AcB
Radium-C' Ra C' 214Po 1909
1912
Otto Hahn & Lise Meitner
Kasimir Fajans
 
Thorium-C' Th C' 212Po 1906 Otto Hahn Originally Thorium-C
Actinium-C' Ac C' 211Po 1913 Ernest Marsden & R.H. Wilson  
Radium-F
Radiotellurium
Ra F
Rd Te
210Po 1902 Willy Marckwald  

Poland
Poland (/ˈpoʊlənd/ Polish: Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north. The total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres (120,726 sq mi), making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. Poland has a population of over 38 million people, which makes it the 34th most populous country in the world and one of the most populous members of the European Union (note).

The common Polish name for Poland is Polska. The latter Polish word is an adjectival form which has developed into a substantive noun, most probably originating in the phrase polska ziemia, meaning "Polish land". The name derives from the name of the Polans (Polanie), a dominant West Slavic tribe, which inhabited the territories of present-day Poland in the 9th-10th centuries. The origin of the name Polanie itself is uncertain. It may derive from such Polish words as pole ("field"), opole ("group of villages belonging to one clan", an early administrative unit) or plemię ("tribe") (note).

Further reading
  • Mary Elvira Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, comp. rev. by Heny M. Leicester (Easton, Pa.: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968), pp. 778-781.
  • Polonium und Isotope. Gmelins Handbuch der anorganische Chemie, 8. Aufl.; System-Nummer 12 (1941).

Sources Index of Persons Index of Alleged Elements