102. Nobelium - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

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102
Nobelium
Nobelium – Nobelium – Nobélium – Nobelio – ギースリウム – Нобелий – 鍩
No
Multilingual dictionary

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Nobelium Latin

— Germanic
Nobelium Afrikaans
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Нобелий [Nobelij] Bulgarian
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Nobelis Lithuanian
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Nobeliom Breton
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— Other Indo-European
Νομπελιο [nobelio] Greek
Նրբելինիում [nobelinium] Armenian
Nobelium[i] Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
Nobelyûm Kurdish
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— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
নোবেলিয়াম [nobeliẏāma] Bengali
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Finno-Ugric
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Altaic
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Other (Europe)
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Afro-Asiatic
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Sino-Tibetan
Na (鍩) Hakka
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[nuo4 / nok9] Chinese

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നോബെലിയം [nōbeliyam] Malayalam
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Nobelu Lingala
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North-America
Nobelio Nahuatl

South-America
Nobelyu Quechua

Creole
Nobelimi Sranan Tongo

Artificial
Nobelio Esperanto

New names
Nobelion Atomic Elements
Tinsynium Dorseyville
memory peg

Artificial radioactive element
melting point -- °C; -- °F
boiling point -- °C; -- °F
density -- g/cc; -- pounds/cubic foot
1958 Albert Ghiorso and co-workers, Berkeley, Calif., USA
Alfred Nobel (1833-1896)

History & Etymology

The first preparation of element #102, is had been announced by three different research groups:

  • The first group, consisting of scientist from Argonne National Laboratory, USA, Harwell Atomic Energy Research Establishment, England and the Nobel Institute of Physics, Sweden, reported the isolation of element 102 in 1957. This group included P. R. Fields, A. M. Friedman, J. Milstred, H. Atterling, W. Forsling, L. W. Holm and B. Astrom. They irradiated a target of Cm 244, Cm 246 and Cm 248 with Carbon ions, obtaining an isotope with mass number between 251 and 255, but with atomic number considered to be 102. This group proposed the name Nobelium in honor to Alfred Nobel. According to Hyde & Seaborg (1973) this discovery proved to be a premature claim.
  • In 1958, Albert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, J.R. Walton, and Glenn T. Seaborg at the Lawrence Radiations Laboratory, University of California succeeded in the by bombardment of Curium with Carbon ions. They detected the isotope 254 with a half-life of 3 seconds. This group identified the isotope 255 prepared through the irradiation of Cf 252 with boron ions. This is now generally accepted as the first preparation of element #102.
  • The third group of scientists working in 1957 at the the ќбъединенный »нститут ядерных »сследований (ќ»я») - Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) at ƒубна (Dubna) in the former USSR, also reported the production of isotopes of element 102. Their attempts involving irradiating Pu 239 and Pu 241 with Oxygen ions were not very successful. Only in 1963 they were able to report the detection of No 256 through the irradiation of U 238 with Neon ions and using a method similar to the other research groups.
The name and symbol Nobelium (No) was ratified by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistr (IUPAC) Council meeting in Geneva during August 1997 (see "Naming the transfermium elements" on the IUPAC names page).

New name
John and Gordon Marks suggested in 1994 the name Cyclonium (Cy) after the cyclotron which identiefied many actinide elements. The Marks brothers found the old names ugly and confusing. They offered alternative names that are equivalent contemporary (at the time and place of discovery) metaphors, both more euphonious and more memorable (note).

Alfred Nobel
Alfred Bernhard Nobel (Stockholm, Sweden, 21 October 1833 Ц Sanremo, Italy, 10 December 1896), Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite. He owned Bofors, a major armaments manufacturer, which he had redirected from its previous role as an iron and steel mill. Nobel held 355 different patents, dynamite being the most famous. In his last will, he used his enormous fortune to institute the Nobel Prizes (note).

The Nobel Foundation has in its Nobel e-Museum a complete biography on-line.

Further reading
  • Mary Elvira Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, comp. rev. by Heny M. Leicester (Easton, Pa.: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968), pp. 851-852.
  • Earl K. Hyde & Glenn T. Seaborg, Transurane : Teil A 1, I: Die Elemente. Gmelins Handbuch der anorganische Chemie, Ergänzungswerk zur 8. Aufl.; Band 7a. Weinheim/Bergstrasse: Chemie, 1973.
  • Glenn T. Seaborg, Early History of LBNL, A transcript of the lecture on the 65th Anniversary of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, August 26, 1996 (on-line).
  • A. Ghiorso, T. Sikkeland, J.R. Walton, and G.T. Seaborg, "Element No. 102". Phys. Rev. Lett. 1 (1958).

Sources Index of Persons Index of Alleged Elements