60. Neodymium - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

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60
Neodymium
Neodymium – Neodym – Néodyme – Neodímio – キオジム – Неодим – 釹
Nd
Multilingual dictionary

Indo-European
Neodymium Latin

— Germanic
Neodimium Afrikaans
Neodym Danish
Neodym German
Neodymium English
Neodym Faroese
Neodymium Frisian (West)
Neodým Icelandic
Neodym Luxembourgish
Neodymium Dutch
Neodym Norwegian
Neodym Swedish

— Italic
Neodimio Aragonese
Neodimiumu Aromanian
Neodimiu Asturian
Neodimi Catalan
Neodímio Spanish
Néodyme French
Neodimi Friulian
Neodimio Galician
Neodimio Italian
Neudími Lombard
Neodimi Occitan
Neodímio Portuguese
Neodim Romanian - Moldovan

— Slavic
Ниодим [Niodim] Bulgarian
Neodymijum, ²Neodimij Bosnian
Неадым [neadym] Belarusian
Neodym Czech
Neodimij Croatian
Neòdim Kashubian
Неодиумиум [Neodiumium] Macedonian
Neodym Polish
Неодим [Neodim] Russian
Neodym Slovak
Neodim Slovenian
Неодијум [Neodijum] Serbian
Неодим [neodym] Ukrainian

— Baltic
Neodimis Lithuanian
Neodīms Latvian
Neuodėmis Samogitian

— Celtic
Neodim Breton
Neodymiwm Welsh
Neoidimiam Gaelic (Irish)
Neoidimiam Gaelic (Scottish)
Neodimmium Gaelic (Manx)
Neodymyum Cornish

— Other Indo-European
Νεοδυμιο [neodymio] Greek
Նեոդիում [neodium] Armenian
Neodim, ²Neodymi Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
Neodmyûm Kurdish
Неодим [neodim] Ossetian
Неодим [Neodim] Tajik

— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
নিওডিমিয়াম [nioḍimiẏāma] Bengali
نئودیمیم [nywdymym] Persian
નિયોડિનિયમનો [niyoḍiniyamano] Gujarati
नियोडाइमियम [niyoḍāimiyama] Hindi

Finno-Ugric
Neodüüm Estonian
Neodyymi Finnish
Neodimium Hungarian
Неодим [Neodim] Komi
Неодим [Neodim] Mari
Нодими [nodimi] Moksha
Neodüüm Võro

Altaic
Neodim Azerbaijani
Неодим [Neodim] Chuvash
Неодим [neodim] Kazakh
Неодим [Neodim] Kyrgyz
Неодим [neodim] Mongolian
Neodim Turkish
نېئودىي [ne'odiy] Uyghur
Neodim Uzbek

Other (Europe)
Neodimioa Basque
ნეოდიმი [neodimi] Georgian

Afro-Asiatic
نيودميوم [niyūdīmiyūm] Arabic
ניאודימיום [neodimium] Hebrew
Neodimju[m] Maltese

Sino-Tibetan
Ńg (釹) Hakka
キオジム [neojimu] Japanese
네오디뮴 [ne'odimyum] Korean
นีโอดิเมียม [nīōdimiam] Thai
Neođim Vietnamese
[nu3 / lui5] Chinese

Malayo-Polynesian
Neodimyo Cebuano
Neodinium Indonesian
Neodymium Māori
Neodimium Malay

Other Asiatic
നിയോഡൈമിയം [niyōḍaimiyam] Malayalam
நியோடைமியம் [niyōţaimiyam] Tamil

Africa
Nedimu? Lingala
Neodimiamo Sesotho
Neodimi Swahili

North-America
Neodimio Nahuatl

South-America
Neodimyu Quechua

Creole
Neodimimi Sranan Tongo

Artificial
Neodimo Esperanto

New names
Neodime Atomic Elements
Crabintium Dorseyville
memory peg

Reflective gray metal which forms a dark oxide with a slightly pinkish hue
melting point 1021 °C; 1870 °F
boiling point 3068 °C; 5554 °F
density 6.8-7.01 g/cc; 424.51-437.433 pounds/cubic foot
1885 Carl Auer von Welsbach, Austria
νεος + διδυμος (neos + didymos) = new + twins (Greek), new element found in Didymium

History & Etymology

As described at Praseodymium Carl Gustav Mosander had named in 1842 a new element Didymium, from the Greek διδυμος (didymos) = twins), because it closely resembled Lanthanum and had been discovered in conjunction with it. Friedrich Wöhler objected this name and thought it had been given because Mosander had four children, all born as twins. Despite this, the name Didymium was in used for over 40 years.

A number of chemists believed that Didymium was a mixture of elements and in 1879 François Lecoq de Boisbaudran showed that it contained Samarium. In 1885 the Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach (18581929) separated the residual Didymium after removal of Samarium, into two elements (note): Neodymium (new twin) and Praseodymium (green twin), so retaining a part of the original name, with a new suffix. Neodymium forms the chief portion of the old Didymium and got the suffix νεος [neos] = new, young (thus in fact "new didymium"). Praseodymium gots its new name because of the green oxyde.

John and Gordon Marks suggested in 1994 the name Tyrium (Ty), after Tyr, in the Norse mythology god of war and strife and son of Odin (cf. uranium after Uranus) and for its tyrian (purple) coloured salts. The Marks brothers found the old names ugly and confusing. They offered alternative names that are equivalent contemporary (at the time and place of discovery) metaphors, both more euphonious and more memorable (note).

See also: Chronological list of discovery of the rare earths and their names

Further reading
  • Mary Elvira Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, comp. rev. by Heny M. Leicester (Easton, Pa.: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968), pp. 667-699.
  • Seltene Erden. Gmelins Handbuch der anorganische Chemie, 8. Aufl.; System-Nummer 39 (1938).
  • Lauri Niinistö, Swedish Contributions to the Discovery of Elements: Part 3: The Work of Mosander, Cleve and Nilson. ERES Newsletter, vol. 12, no. 1 (30 June 2001). (on-line).
  • Robert Plohn, "Seltene Erden". Zeitschrift 'Die Koralle', Sept. 1929 (on-line).

Sources Index of Persons Index of Alleged Elements