25. Manganum (Manganese) - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

eXTReMe Tracker
This site comprises 120 pages of text and photos, one for each element, and several pages for access. – For captions or explanatory texts move your mouse over illustrations, links etc.

25
Manganum Manganese
Mangaan – Mangan – Manganèse – Manganesio – マンガン – Марганец – 鎂
Mn
Multilingual dictionary

Indo-European
Manganum Latin

— Germanic
Mangaan Afrikaans
Mangan Danish
Mangan German
Manganese English
Mangan Faroese
Mangaan Frisian (West)
Mangan Icelandic
Mangan Luxembourgish
Mangaan Dutch
Mangan Norwegian
Mangan Swedish

— Italic
Manganeso Aragonese
Manganu Aromanian
Manganesiu Asturian
Manganès Catalan
Manganesio Spanish
Manganèse French
Manganês Friulian
Manganeso Galician
Manganese Italian
Manganées Lombard
Manganès Occitan
Manganésio Portuguese
Mangan Romanian - Moldovan

— Slavic
Манган [Mangan] Bulgarian
Mangan Bosnian
Марганец [marhanec] Belarusian
Mangan Czech
Mangan Croatian
Mangan Kashubian
Манган [Mangan] Macedonian
Mangan Polish
Марганец [Marganec] Russian
Mangán Slovak
Mangan Slovenian
Манган [Mangan] Serbian
Марганець [marhanec'] Ukrainian

— Baltic
Manganas Lithuanian
Mangāns Latvian
Mangans Samogitian

— Celtic
Manganez Breton
Manganîs Welsh
Mangainéis Gaelic (Irish)
Mangaineis Gaelic (Scottish)
Manganais Gaelic (Manx)
Manganus Cornish

— Other Indo-European
Μαγγανιο [magganio] Greek
Մանգան [mangan] Armenian
Mangan[i] Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
Manganez Kurdish
Марганец [marganec] Ossetian
Манган [Mangan] Tajik

— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
ম্যাঙ্গানিজ [myāṅgānija] Bengali
منگنز [mngnz] Persian
મૅંગેનીઝનો [me'genījhano] Gujarati
मैंगनीज [maiganīja] Hindi

Finno-Ugric
Mangaan Estonian
Mangaani Finnish
Mangán Hungarian
Марганец [Marganec] Komi
Марганец [Marganec] Mari
Марганцае [margancae] Moksha
Mangaan Võro

Altaic
Manqan Azerbaijani
Марганец [Marganec] Chuvash
Марганец [marganec] Kazakh
Марганец [Marganec] Kyrgyz
Манган [mangan] Mongolian
Mangan Turkish
مانگان [mangan] Uyghur
Marganets Uzbek

Other (Europe)
Manganesoa Basque
მარგანეცი [marganec'i] Georgian

Afro-Asiatic
منجنيز [manghanīz] Arabic
מנגן [mangan] Hebrew
Manganiż Maltese

Sino-Tibetan
Màng (錳) Hakka
マンガン [mangan] Japanese
망간, 2망가니즈 [manggan, mangganijeu] Korean
แมงกานีส [maengkānīs/maengkānīt] Thai
Mangan Vietnamese
[mei3 / mei5] Chinese

Malayo-Polynesian
Manganeso Cebuano
Manggan Indonesian
Manganese Māori
Mangan Malay

Other Asiatic
മാംഗനീസ് [māṅganīs] Malayalam
மங்கனீசு [mańkaṉīku] Tamil

Africa
Manezu Lingala
Mankanese Sesotho
Manganisi Swahili

North-America
Manganesio Nahuatl

South-America
Manganisu Quechua

Creole
Manganimi Sranan Tongo

Artificial
Mangano Esperanto

New names
Mangese Atomic Elements
Silver Greens Dorseyville
memory peg

Gray metal which readily oxidizes forming a brown colored oxide
melting point 1244 °C; 2271 °F
boiling point 1962 °C; 3564 °F
density 7.21-7.44 g/cc; 450.1-464.5 pounds/cubic foot
1774 Johan Gottlieb Gahn, Sweden
Μαγνησια (Magnisia), region in Thessaly (Greece)
named by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1774

History & Etymology

Manganese Manganese compounds were already used in the Antiquity, but it is difficult to determine the beginning of its usage, once they were mistaken by other compounds such as those of iron and of other elements. Its dioxide, magnesia nigra (MnO2), was the mineral pyrolusite, sometimes also called simply magnesia or manganese. This term was used in contrast with magnesia alba (hydrated magnesium carbonate, see Magnesium).

The Prussian chemist Johann Heinrich Pott (1692-1777) in 1740, proved that pyrolusite does not contain iron, as it was believed until then, and that it produced a wide variety of salts, which were different from those obtained from the iron oxides.

In 1770 Torbern Olof Bergman (1735-1784), professor of chemistry at Uppsala, distinguished pyrolusite from lime and magnesia alba, described it as the calx of a new metal, but failed to reduce the ore. In 1774 a friend of Bergman, Carl Wilhelm Scheele competed a three year investigation, called it Manganese, and described it as the calx of a metal different from any then known. Bergman's assistant, Johan Gottlieb Gahn (1745-1818), finally isolated Manganese as an element.

Several webpages mention that the metal was discovered in 1770 by Ignatius Gottfred Kaim in Vienna, and that it later was investigated by Bergman and Scheele.

Location of the prefecture Magnesia in Greece The word Manganese is Italian and probably corrupted from "magnesia." The names magnesia alba and magnesia nigra are derived from Magnesia, Μαγνησια, a prefecture in Thessaly (Greece), with the capital Volos) (see map to the left). Manganese and Magnesium were abundant in oxide and carbonate ores in this region, and they therefore became referred as Μαγνητις λιθος, or stones from Magnesia. The region also contained large amounts of iron oxides (magnetite, or lodestone, for example) so that the ores were magnetized. That explains why magnesium as well as magnet (and magnetism) are derived from Magnesia.
Other sources give a town named Magnesia in Asia Minor as origin, which is incorrect. There were actually two towns named Magnesia in that region, Magnesia ad Maeandrum near Ephesus (abandoned after the Roman times) and Magnesia ad Sipylum near Smyrna (nowadays Manisa).

Chemistianity 1873
OTYAN
MANGANESE is a favouring metal
Of whose innate virtues we must know more.
It is of reddish white colour, brittle,
And hard enough to scratch Glass or hard Steel.
J. Carrington Sellars, Chemistianity, 1873, p. 142
Further reading
  • Mary Elvira Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, comp. rev. by Heny M. Leicester (Easton, Pa.: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968), pp. 163-169.
  • Carl Wilhelm Scheele, excerpts from "On Manganese and its Properties". Kong. Vetenskaps Academiens Handlingar 35, 89, 93, 94, 105-110 (1774) ["Om Brunsten, eller Magnesia, och dess Egenskaper", as excerpted and translated in Alembic Club Reprint #13, The Early History of Chlorine]. (on-line).
  • Roland Mathieu, Magnetism of manganites, semiconductors and spin glasses. Dissertation Uppsala University, 2002 (PDF-file on-line).

Sources Index of Persons Index of Alleged Elements