Elementymology & Elements Multidict
Mangaan – Mangan – Manganèse – Manganesio – マンガン – Марганец – 鎂
Mangaan Frisian (West)
Mangan Romanian - Moldovan
SlavicМанган [Mangan] Bulgarian
Марганец [marhanec] Belarusian
Манган [Mangan] Macedonian
Марганец [Marganec] Russian
Манган [Mangan] Serbian
Марганець [marhanec'] Ukrainian
Mangainéis Gaelic (Irish)
Mangaineis Gaelic (Scottish)
Manganais Gaelic (Manx)
Other Indo-EuropeanΜαγγανιο [magganio] Greek
Մանգան [mangan] Armenian
Марганец [marganec] Ossetian
Манган [Mangan] Tajik
Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryanম্যাঙ্গানিজ [myāṅgānija] Bengali
منگنز [mngnz] Persian
મૅંગેનીઝનો [me'genījhano] Gujarati
मैंगनीज [maiganīja] Hindi
Марганец [Marganec] Komi
Марганец [Marganec] Mari
Марганцае [margancae] Moksha
Марганец [Marganec] Chuvash
Марганец [marganec] Kazakh
Марганец [Marganec] Kyrgyz
Манган [mangan] Mongolian
مانگان [mangan] Uyghur
Other (Europe)Manganesoa Basque
მარგანეცი [marganec'i] Georgian
Afro-Asiaticمنجنيز [manghanīz] Arabic
מנגן [mangan] Hebrew
Sino-TibetanMàng (錳) Hakka
マンガン [mangan] Japanese
망간, 2망가니즈 [manggan, mangganijeu] Korean
แมงกานีส [maengkānīs/maengkānīt] Thai
鎂 [mei3 / mei5] Chinese
Other Asiaticമാംഗനീസ് [māṅganīs] Malayalam
மங்கனீசு [mańkaṉīku] Tamil
CreoleManganimi Sranan Tongo
New namesMangese Atomic Elements
Silver Greens Dorseyville
History & Etymology
Manganese compounds were already used in the Antiquity, but it is difficult to determine the beginning of its usage, once they were mistaken by other compounds such as those of iron and of other elements. Its dioxide, magnesia nigra (MnO2), was the mineral pyrolusite, sometimes also called simply magnesia or manganese. This term was used in contrast with magnesia alba (hydrated magnesium carbonate, see Magnesium).
The Prussian chemist Johann Heinrich Pott (1692-1777) in 1740, proved that pyrolusite does not contain iron, as it was believed until then, and that it produced a wide variety of salts, which were different from those obtained from the iron oxides.
In 1770 Torbern Olof Bergman (1735-1784), professor of chemistry at Uppsala, distinguished pyrolusite from lime and magnesia alba, described it as the calx of a new metal, but failed to reduce the ore. In 1774 a friend of Bergman, Carl Wilhelm Scheele competed a three year investigation, called it Manganese, and described it as the calx of a metal different from any then known. Bergman's assistant, Johan Gottlieb Gahn (1745-1818), finally isolated Manganese as an element.
Several webpages mention that the metal was discovered in 1770 by Ignatius Gottfred Kaim in Vienna, and that it later was investigated by Bergman and Scheele.
The word Manganese is Italian and probably corrupted from "magnesia." The names magnesia alba and magnesia nigra are derived from Magnesia, Μαγνησια, a prefecture in Thessaly (Greece), with the capital Volos) (see map to the left). Manganese and Magnesium were abundant in oxide and carbonate ores in this region, and they therefore became referred as Μαγνητις λιθος, or stones from Magnesia. The region also contained large amounts of iron oxides (magnetite, or lodestone, for example) so that the ores were magnetized. That explains why magnesium as well as magnet (and magnetism) are derived from Magnesia.
MANGANESE is a favouring metal
Of whose innate virtues we must know more.
It is of reddish white colour, brittle,
And hard enough to scratch Glass or hard Steel.