53. Iodium (Iodine) - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

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53
Iodium Iodine
Jood – Jod – Iode – Yodo – ヨウ素 – Йод – 碘
I
Multilingual dictionary

Indo-European
Iodium Latin

— Germanic
Jodium Afrikaans
Jod Danish
Jod German
Iodine English
Jod Faroese
Joadium Frisian (West)
Joð Icelandic
Jod Luxembourgish
Jood Dutch
Jod Norwegian
Jod Swedish

— Italic
Yodo Aragonese
Iodu Aromanian
Yodu Asturian
Iode Catalan
Yodo Spanish
Iode French
Jodi Friulian
Iodo Galician
Iodio Italian
Jòdi Lombard
Iòde Occitan
Iodo Portuguese
Iod Romanian - Moldovan

— Slavic
Йод [Jod] Bulgarian
Jod Bosnian
Ёд [ëd] Belarusian
Jod Czech
Jod Croatian
Jód Kashubian
Јод [Jod] Macedonian
Jod Polish
Йод [Jod] Russian
Jód Slovak
Jod Slovenian
Јод [Jod] Serbian
Йод [jod] Ukrainian

— Baltic
Jodas Lithuanian
Jods Latvian
Juods Samogitian

— Celtic
Iod Breton
Ïodin Welsh
Iaidín Gaelic (Irish)
Ìodain Gaelic (Scottish)
Eeadeen Gaelic (Manx)
Eyodyn Cornish

— Other Indo-European
Ιωδιο [iōdio] Greek
Յոդ [yod] Armenian
Jod[i] Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
İyot Kurdish
Йод [Jod] Ossetian
Йод [Iod] Tajik

— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
আয়োডিন [āẏoḍina] Bengali
ید [yd] Persian
આયોડિનનો [āyoḍinano] Gujarati
आयोडिन [āyoḍina] Hindi

Finno-Ugric
Jood Estonian
Jodi Finnish
Jód Hungarian
Йод [Jod] Komi
Йод [Jod] Mari
Йода [joda] Moksha
Juut Võro

Altaic
Yod Azerbaijani
Иод [Jod] Chuvash
Йод [jod] Kazakh
Йод [Jod] Kyrgyz
Иод [iod] Mongolian
İyod Turkish
يود [yod] Uyghur
Yod Uzbek

Other (Europe)
Iodoa Basque
იოდი [iodi] Georgian

Afro-Asiatic
يود [yūd] Arabic
יוד [iod] Hebrew
Jodju Maltese

Sino-Tibetan
Tièn (碘) Hakka
ヨウ素 [youso] Japanese
요오드, 2아이오딘 [yo'odeu, a'i'odin] Korean
ไอโอดีน [aiōdīn] Thai
Iot, Iođ Vietnamese
[dian3 / din2] Chinese

Malayo-Polynesian
Yodo Cebuano
Yodium Indonesian
Iodine Māori
Iodin, ²Yodium Malay

Other Asiatic
അയോഡിന്‍ [ayōḍin] Malayalam
அயடின் [ayaţiṉ] Tamil

Africa
Ide Lingala
Ayotine Sesotho
Iodini, ²Aidini Swahili

North-America
Yodo Nahuatl

South-America
Yudu, ²Yodu Quechua

Creole
Dyodi Sranan Tongo

Artificial
Jodo Esperanto

New names
Iodon Atomic Elements
Bop Dorseyville
memory peg

Deep purple, metallic looking solid which readily gives off a violet colored vapor
melting point 113 °C; 236 °F
boiling point 184 °C; 364 °F
density 0.011 g/cc; 0.7 pounds/cubic foot
1811 Bernard Courtois, France
ιοειδης [ioeidès] = violet coloured (Greek)

History & Etymology

Iodine was discovered in May 1811 by Bernard Courtois (1777-1838) in Dijon. Courtois was manufacturer of salpeter (potassium nitrate, KNO3), a major component of gunpowder. In the early 19th century, France was at war and needed enormous quantities of gunpowder. The manufacture of salpeter requires a plentiful supply of Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), which is obtained by extraction from wood ashes. Wood ashes was made from seaweed, gathered at the coasts of Normandy and Brittany. After the process, the various Sulphur compounds produced during calcination (burning), were destroyed by adding sulphuric acid. In 1811 Courtois accidentally added excess sulphuric acid resulting in a violet vapor cloud that condensed on colder objects forming dark, lustrous crystals. He observed that the new substance combined with Hydrogen, Phosphorus and certain metals but not readily with Oxygen or Carbon. It did not decompose under red heat, but formed an explosive with ammonia. (note)

Courtois suspected it was a new element, but because of lack of money he had to turned over further investigation to his friends, the French physicist and chemist Charles-Bernard Désormes (1777-1862), who did almost all his scientific work in collaboration with his son-in-law Nicolas Clément (1779-1841). They announced the discovery on 29 November 1813 at a meeting of the Imperial Institute of France.

Other specimens were given by Courtois to Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac (1778-1850) and André M. Ampère (1775–1836). On 6 December 1813 he suggested that the new substance was either an element or a compound of oxygen.

In the mean time, Ampère had given his sample to the English chemist Sir Humpry Davy (1778-1829), who visited Paris travelling to Italy. Davy always carried a compact chest of laboratory apparatus when he traveled and did some experiments with this samples. He sent off a paper to the Royal Society of London, dated 10 December 1813 (note), describing his experiments and recognizing the similarities between the new substance and Chlorine. He named it Iodine, after the Greek ιοειδης [ioeidès] = violet coloured (from ιον [ion] = violin), which was analogous to Chlorine and Fluorine. Although a quarrel over priority rights followed, Gay-Lussac and Davy both acknowledged Courtois as the discoverer of Iodine. Gay-Lussac’s major publication on Iodine was read on 1 August 1814. He named the new element Iode.

 

Chemistianity 1873
GTYAN
IODINE, a true caustic to diseased flesh,
Is a violet-colour'd solid metalloid,
Of dull metallic, plumbago lustre;
It exists in scales, plates, and splendid crystals,
It is volatile at common temp'rature.
J. Carrington Sellars, Chemistianity, 1873, p.108-109
Further reading
  • Mary Elvira Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, comp. rev. by Heny M. Leicester (Easton, Pa.: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968), pp. 708-719.
  • Louis Rosenfeld, "Discovery and Early Uses of Iodine." Chemistry for everyone. Journal of Chemical Education, Vol. 77 No. 8 August 2000 (pdf-file on-line)

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