67. Holmium - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

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67
Holmium
Holmium – Holmium – Holmium – Hólmio – セルミウム – Голъмий – 鈥
Ho
Multilingual dictionary

Indo-European
Holmium Latin

— Germanic
Holmium Afrikaans
Holmium Danish
Holmium German
Holmium English
Holmium Faroese
Holmium Frisian (West)
Holmín Icelandic
Holmium Luxembourgish
Holmium Dutch
Holmium Norwegian
Holmium Swedish

— Italic
Olmio Aragonese
Holmiumu Aromanian
Holmiu Asturian
Holmi Catalan
Hólmio Spanish
Holmium French
Olmi Friulian
Holmio Galician
Olmio Italian
Úlmi Lombard
Òlmi Occitan
Hólmio Portuguese
Holmiu Romanian - Moldovan

— Slavic
Холъмий [Hol"mij] Bulgarian
Holmij[um] Bosnian
Гольмій [hol'mij] Belarusian
Holmium Czech
Holmij Croatian
Hòlm Kashubian
Холмиум [Holmium] Macedonian
Holm Polish
Голъмий [Gol"mij] Russian
Holmium Slovak
Holmij Slovenian
Холмијум [Holmijum] Serbian
Голъмій [hol"mij] Ukrainian

— Baltic
Holmis Lithuanian
Holmijs Latvian
Holmis Samogitian

— Celtic
Holmiom Breton
Holmiwm Welsh
Hoilmiam Gaelic (Irish)
Hoilmiam Gaelic (Scottish)
Holmium Gaelic (Manx)
Holmyum Cornish

— Other Indo-European
Όλμιο [holmio] Greek
Հոլմիում [holmium] Armenian
Holmium[i] Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
Holmiyûm Kurdish
Голъмий [gol"mij] Ossetian
Голъмий [Gol'mi'] Tajik

— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
হলমিয়াম [halamiẏāma] Bengali
هولمیم [hwlmym] Persian
હોમિયમનો [homiyamano] Gujarati
होल्मियम [holmiyama] Hindi

Finno-Ugric
Holmium Estonian
Holmium Finnish
Holmium Hungarian
Голъмий [Gol"mij] Komi
Голъмий [Gol"mij] Mari
Холми [holmi] Moksha
Holmium Võro

Altaic
Holmium Azerbaijani
Голъми [Gol"mi] Chuvash
Голъмий [gol"mij] Kazakh
Голъмий [Gol"mij] Kyrgyz
Гольми [gol'mi] Mongolian
Holmiyum Turkish
گولمىي [golmiy] Uyghur
Golmiy Uzbek

Other (Europe)
Holmioa Basque
ჰოლმიუმი [holmiumi] Georgian

Afro-Asiatic
هلميوم [hūlmiyūm] Arabic
הולמיום [holmium] Hebrew
Holmjum, ²Olmju Maltese

Sino-Tibetan
Fó (鈥) Hakka
セルミウム [horumiumu] Japanese
홀뮴 [holmyum] Korean
โฮลเมียม [hōlmiam/hōnmiam] Thai
Holmi, Honmi Vietnamese
[huo2 / foh2] Chinese

Malayo-Polynesian
Holmyo Cebuano
Holmium Indonesian
Holmium Māori
Holmium Malay

Other Asiatic
ഹോമിയം [hōmiyam] Malayalam
ஹொல்மியம் [holmiyam] Tamil

Africa
Olimu Lingala
Holmiamo Sesotho
Homi Swahili

North-America
Holmio Nahuatl

South-America
Holmyu Quechua

Creole
Holmimi Sranan Tongo

Artificial
Holmio Esperanto

New names
Holmion Atomic Elements
Gleamium Dorseyville
memory peg

Gray-white metal
melting point 1474 °C; 2685 °F
boiling point 2695 °C; 4883 °F
density 8.79 g/cc; 549.05 pounds/cubic foot
1878 Jacques-Louis Soret, France
Holmia = Stockholm (Latin)
Named by Per Theodor Cleve, 1879

History & Etymology

The story of discovery and naming of the rare earth element Holmium began with Carl Gustav Mosander splitting old yttria into three new elements, yttria proper, erbia, and terbia (see the special Rare Earths page). In 1860 the Swedish chemist Nils Johan Berlin (1812-1891) denied the existence of Mosanderís erbia, and gave this name to his terbia.

In 1878, Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac, professor of Chemistry at the University of Geneva, separated Berlin's erbia into two new earths, erbia and ytterbia (note). Marignac's erbia was the following year split by Cleve into erbia proper and two new elements, which he named Thulium and Holmium (note). (it seemed that Delafontaine's Philippium, found in 1878 in samarskite, was identical with Holmium).

Gadolinite, with Berlinís erbia, was also spectroscopically examined by Jacques-Louis Soret in 1878. He wrote that Marignac and Delafontaine have found three earths in gadolinite, yttria, erbia, and terbia, the latter being contested, and that it seemed that there was also a fourth earth present, which was still unnamed. Soret indicated the new metal provisionally with terre X (note). In 1880 he accepted Cleveís name holmia (note).

Holmia was split in 1886 by Lecoq de Boisbaudran into a true holmia and a new oxide dysprosia (note).

After (Stock-)Holmia, the Latin name of Stockholm, since the minerals with yttria were found in the region of Stockholm.

According to other sources it is named after the chemist O. Holmberg. This is erroneous: Holmberg was in 1911 the first who succeeded to prepare pure Holmium.

See also: Chronological list of discovery of the rare earths and their names

Stockholm
Stockholm (Swedish pronunciation: ['stɔk:ɔlm]) is the capital and the largest city (population of 825,057) of Sweden. Founded circa 1250, Stockholm has long been one of Sweden's cultural, media, political, and economic centres. It is strategic located on 14 islands on the south-central east coast of Sweden at the mouth of Lake Mälaren.

Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, and in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne. The earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name (stock) means log in Swedish, although it may also be connected to an old German word (Stock), meaning fortification. The second part of the name (holm) means islet, and is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. The city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from a sea invasion by foreign navies, and to stop the pillage of towns such as Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren (note).



Alternative name
John and Gordon Marks suggested in 1994 the name Newtonium (Nw), after Sir Isaac Newton, just as Einsteinium is named after Albert Einstein. The Marks brothers found the old names ugly and confusing. They offered alternative names that are equivalent contemporary (at the time and place of discovery) metaphors, both more euphonious and more memorable (note).

Further reading
  • Mary Elvira Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, comp. rev. by Heny M. Leicester (Easton, Pa.: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968), pp. 667-699.
  • Seltene Erden. Gmelins Handbuch der anorganische Chemie, 8. Aufl.; System-Nummer 39 (1938).

Sources Index of Persons Index of Alleged Elements