64. Gadolinium - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

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64
Gadolinium
Gadolinium – Gadolinium – Gadolinium – Gadolínio – ガォリカウム – Гадолиний – 釓
Gd
Multilingual dictionary

Indo-European
Gadolinium Latin

— Germanic
Gadolinium Afrikaans
Gadolinium Danish
Gadolinium German
Gadolinium English
Gadolinium Faroese
Gadolinium Frisian (West)
Gadólín Icelandic
Gadolinium Luxembourgish
Gadolinium Dutch
Gadolinium Norwegian
Gadolinium Swedish

— Italic
Gadolinio Aragonese
Gadoliniumu Aromanian
Gadoliniu Asturian
Gadolini Catalan
Gadolínio Spanish
Gadolinium French
Gadolini Friulian
Gadolinio Galician
Gadolinio Italian
Gadulíni Lombard
Gadolini Occitan
Gadolínio Portuguese
Gadoliniu Romanian - Moldovan

— Slavic
Гадолиний [Gadolinij] Bulgarian
Gadolinij[um] Bosnian
Гадаліній [hadalinij] Belarusian
Gadolinium Czech
Gadolinij Croatian
Gadolin Kashubian
Гадолиниум [Gadolinium] Macedonian
Gadolin Polish
Гадолиний [Gadolinij] Russian
Gadolinium Slovak
Gadolinij Slovenian
Гадолинијум [Gadolinijum] Serbian
Гадоліній [hadolinij] Ukrainian

— Baltic
Gadolinis Lithuanian
Gadolīnijs Latvian
Gaduolėnis Samogitian

— Celtic
Gadoliniom Breton
Gadoliniwm Welsh
Gadailiniam Gaelic (Irish)
Gadailiniam Gaelic (Scottish)
Gadolinnium Gaelic (Manx)
Gadolynyum Cornish

— Other Indo-European
Γαδολινιο [gadolinio] Greek
.ադոլինիում [(g)adolinium] Armenian
Gadolin, ²Gadoliniumi Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
Gadolinyûm Kurdish
Гадолиний [gadolinij] Ossetian
Гадолиний [Gadilini'] Tajik

— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
গ্যাডোলিনিয়াম [gyāḍoliniẏāma] Bengali
گادولینیم [gadwlynym] Persian
ગૅડોલિનિયમનો [geḍoliniyamano] Gujarati
ग्याडोलिनियम [gyāḍoliniyama] Hindi

Finno-Ugric
Gadoliinium Estonian
Gadolinium Finnish
Gadolínium Hungarian
Гадолиний [Gadolinij] Komi
Гадолиний [Gadolinij] Mari
Гадолини [gadolini] Moksha
Gadoliinium Võro

Altaic
Qadolinium Azerbaijani
Гадолини [Gadolini] Chuvash
Гадолиний [gadolinij] Kazakh
Гадолиний [Gadolinij] Kyrgyz
Гадолини [gadolini] Mongolian
Gadolinyum Turkish
گادولنىي [gadolniy] Uyghur
Gadoliniy Uzbek

Other (Europe)
Gadolinioa Basque
გადოლინიუმი [gadoliniumi] Georgian

Afro-Asiatic
جدولينيوم [ghādūlīniyūm] Arabic
גדוליניום [gadolinium] Hebrew
Gadolinju[m] Maltese

Sino-Tibetan
Nga̍t (釓) Hakka
ガォリカウム [gadoriniumu] Japanese
가돌리늄 [gadollinyum] Korean
แกโดลิเนียม [kaelōdiniam] Thai
Gađolini Vietnamese
[ga2 / ga1] Chinese

Malayo-Polynesian
Gadolinyo Cebuano
Gadolinium Indonesian
Gadolinium Māori
Gadolinium Malay

Other Asiatic
ഗാഡോലിനിയം [gāḍōliniyam] Malayalam
கடோலினியம்\ [kaţōliṉiyam] Tamil

Africa
Gadoli Lingala
Gadoliniamo Sesotho
Gadolini Swahili

North-America
Gadolinio Nahuatl

South-America
Gadolinyu Quechua

Creole
Gadolinimi Sranan Tongo

Artificial
Gadolinio Esperanto

New names
Gadolion Atomic Elements
Strongmagnium Dorseyville
memory peg

Gray-white metal
melting point 1313 °C; 2395 °F
boiling point 3266 °C; 5911 °F
density 7.9 g/cc; 493.21 pounds/cubic foot
1880 Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac, France
gadolinite, mineral named after Johan Gadolin

History & Etymology

The story of discovery and naming of this element began with Carl Gustav Mosander splitting old yttria into three new earths, yttria proper, erbia, and terbia (see table to the right, and the Rare Earths page). Mosander's erbia was confirmed by Marc Delafontaine in 1878 and renamed terbia, since the name erbia was since 1860 in use for Mosander's Terbium.

Delafontaine's terbia was split by Jean de Marignac in 1880 into an earth to which he gave the provisial name Yα and true terbia (note).

In 1886 François Lecoq de Boisbaudran produced a more pure form of the earth Yα. He separated it from Mosander's didymia, which originated from the mineral samarskite (cf. Samarium). After a correspondece with Marignac, Lecoq announced the Academie that Marignac had chosen to give Yα the name gadolinia. (note). The reason is not given, but clearly is it named after the mineral gadolinite:

 

Gadolinite is named after the chemist Johan Gadolin, see below.

In a mineral from the Ytterby quarry near Stockholm he discovered in 1794 the element Yttrium (which he named Ytterbium). Yttrium was the first of the so-called rare-earth elements discovered. During the following 90 years a number of new rare-earths elements were discovered, some real, some alleged (for the whole story, see the special Rare earths page).

Johan Gadolin
Johan Gadolin (Turku 5 June 1760 15 August 1852) was a Finnish chemist, physicist and mineralogist. Gadolin discovered the chemical element yttrium. He was also the founder of Finnish chemistry research. He beca,e professor of chemistry at the Royal Academy of Turku in 1797, as the second holder of that Chair of Chemistry, established in 1761 and first held by Pehr Adrian Gadd (4 April 1727 11 August 1797). After the old Royal Academy of Åbo was moved to Helsinki in 1828, this chair became the Chair of Organic Chemistry at the University of Helsinki (note).

The history of the surname is amusing: When the son of a Finnish farm 'Maunula' near Turku entered the learned path, he needed a surname and re-latinized (Maunu = Magnus) his farm name to "Magnulin". Later the versions Megalin, Isolin and Gadolin, from Greek, Finnish and Hebrew, respectively, were considered in the family, and the last one was adopted.

Thus Gadolinium has the distinction of being the only elemental name derived from Hebrew (gadol = "great").

Ytterby


Gadolinite Road and Tantalium Road in Ytterby, Summer 2009.

Click here
for more photos

Ytterby, a village in Sweden on the island of Resarö, close to Vaxholm (east of Stockholm) is a deposit of many unusual minerals, containing rare earth and other elements. A Chronological list of discovery of the rare earths and their names and information and illustrations of Ytterby's quarry and a location map is on the Rare Earths page.

Further reading

  • Mary Elvira Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, comp. rev. by Heny M. Leicester (Easton, Pa.: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968), pp. 667-699.
  • Seltene Erden. Gmelins Handbuch der anorganische Chemie, 8. Aufl.; System-Nummer 39 (1938).
  • P. Pyykkö and O. Orama, "What did Johan Gadolin actually do?", C. H. Evans (ed.), Episodes from the History of the Rare-Earth Elements, Kluwer, Dordrecht (1996), pp. 1-12. Thanks to professor Pekka Pyykkö, Professor of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, for his help.
  • Peter B. Dean, and Kirsti I. Dean, "Sir Johan Gadolin of Turku: The Grandfather of Gadolinium." (on-line PDF file).

Sources Index of Persons Index of Alleged Elements