31. Gallium - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

eXTReMe Tracker
This site comprises 120 pages of text and photos, one for each element, and several pages for access. – For captions or explanatory texts move your mouse over illustrations, links etc.

31
Gallium
Gallium – Gallium – Gallium – Galio – ガリウム – Галлий – 鎵
Ga
Multilingual dictionary

Indo-European
Gallium Latin

— Germanic
Gallium Afrikaans
Gallium Danish
Gallium German
Gallium English
Gallium Faroese
Gallium Frisian (West)
Gallín Icelandic
Gallium Luxembourgish
Gallium Dutch
Gallium Norwegian
Gallium Swedish

— Italic
Galio Aragonese
Galiumu Aromanian
Galiu Asturian
Gal·li Catalan
Galio Spanish
Gallium French
Gali Friulian
Galio Galician
Gallio Italian
Gàli Lombard
Galli Occitan
Gálio Portuguese
Galiu Romanian - Moldovan

— Slavic
Галий [Galij] Bulgarian
Galij[um] Bosnian
Галій [halij] Belarusian
Gallium Czech
Gallij Croatian
Gôl Kashubian
Галиум [Galium] Macedonian
Gal Polish
Галлий [Gallij] Russian
Gálium Slovak
Galij Slovenian
Галијум [Galijum] Serbian
Галій [halij] Ukrainian

— Baltic
Galis Lithuanian
Gallijs Latvian
Galis Samogitian

— Celtic
Galliom Breton
Galiwm Welsh
Gailliam Gaelic (Irish)
Gailliam Gaelic (Scottish)
Gallium Gaelic (Manx)
Galyum Cornish

— Other Indo-European
Γαλλιο [gallio] Greek
.ալիում [(g)alium] Armenian
Galium, ²Galliumi Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
Galyûm Kurdish
Галлий [gallij] Ossetian
Галлий [Galli'] Tajik

— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
গ্যালিয়াম [gyāliẏāma] Bengali
گالیم [galym] Persian
ગૅલિયમનો [geliyamano] Gujarati
गैलियम [gailiyama] Hindi

Finno-Ugric
Gallium Estonian
Gallium Finnish
Gallium Hungarian
Галлий [Gallij] Komi
Галлий [Gallij] Mari
Гали [gali] Moksha
Gallium Võro

Altaic
Qallium Azerbaijani
Галли [Galli] Chuvash
Галлий [gallij] Kazakh
Галлий [Gallij] Kyrgyz
Галли [galli] Mongolian
Galyum Turkish
گاللىي [galliy] Uyghur
Galliy Uzbek

Other (Europe)
Galioa Basque
გალიუმი [galiumi] Georgian

Afro-Asiatic
جاليوم [ghāliyūm] Arabic
גליום [galium] Hebrew
Gallju[m] Maltese

Sino-Tibetan
Kâ (鎵) Hakka
ガリウム [gariumu] Japanese
갈륨 [gallyum] Korean
แกลเลียม [kaenliam] Thai
Gali Vietnamese
[jia1 / ga1] Chinese

Malayo-Polynesian
Galio Cebuano
Galium Indonesian
Gallium Māori
Gallium Malay

Other Asiatic
ഗാലിയം [gāliyam] Malayalam
கல்லியம் [kalliyam] Tamil

Africa
Galu Lingala
Galliamo Sesotho
Gali Swahili

North-America
Galio Nahuatl

South-America
Galyu Quechua

Creole
Galimi Sranan Tongo

Artificial
Galio Esperanto

New names
Galion Atomic Elements
Fastmelter Dorseyville
memory peg

Highly reflective metal which melts slightly above body temperature and wets glass. One of the few substances that expands as it solidifies
melting point 30 °C; 86 °F
boiling point 2403 °C; 4357 °F
density 5.90 g/cc; 368.57 pounds/cubic foot
1875 François Lecoq de Boisbaudran, France
Gallia = France (Latin)
unproven rumour says Lecoq named the element after himself ("le coq" [rooster] is "gallus" in Latin)

History & Etymology

Gallium was discovered in 1875 by the French chemist Paul Émile (François) Lecoq de Boisbaudran (1838-1912). Spectroscopic examination of concentrates from a Pyrenea blende revealed emission lines whose positions corresponded to those predicted for eka-aluminum, a missing element between Aluminum and Indium in Mendeleyev's Periodic Table of the elements. Lecoq de Boisbaudran subsequently prepared this new element by electrolysis of caustic solutions and observed some of its properties.

He announced the discovery in his article "Caractères chimiques et spectroscopiques d'un nouveau métal, le gallium, découvert dans une blende de la mine de Pierrefitte, vallée d'Argelès (Pyrénées)" in 1875, without any explanation for the choice of the name (note):

Shortly after the naming of the new element the story came that the discoverer Lecoq de Boisbaudran has named the element after himself: gallium > gallus = cock = in French: le coq. Two years later, in 1877, Lecoq published "About a New Metal, Gallium" (note). In this second article he explained why he named the new metal Gallium, "On August 27, 1875, between three and four at night, I perceived the first indications of the existence of a new element that I named gallium in honor of France (Gallia)." France is Lecoq's native country and the place of discovery (cf. Francium).

In answer to a question of Svetla Baykoucheva on the Chemical Information Sources Discussion List of 16 March 1999

"Was the French chemist Paul-Emile LeCoq de Boisbeaudran still alive, when the chemical element he had discovered was named Gallium" Wade Lee wrote on the same day: "I have done extensive research on this matter along with a chemist colleague, Dr. Jimmie Edwards. He was indeed alive, and he himself named it, and specified that it was in honor of his country, France, aka Gallia.
During his lifetime, the false etymology arose that it was named after himself, Le Coq, in its latin form, Gallus. According to his obituary by Arnaud de Gramont, he was very anxious to deny this rumour during his life. The 'gallus' etymology is frequently cited in French dictionaries, and the 'gallia' etymology is usually quoted in the English language dictionaries, with the notable exception of the OED. The Third ed. of the OED will correct its entry. "
Source: Archives of chminf-l.

Despite this, almost all webpages with the periodical system mention the derivation > gallia and gallus simultaneously.


Gallia
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) is a historical name used in the context of Ancient Rome in references to the region of Western Europe approximating present day France and Belgium, but also sometimes including the Po Valley, western Switzerland, and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine. In English, the word Gaul may also refer to an inhabitant of that region (French: Gaulois), although the expression may be used more generally for all ancient speakers of the Gaulish language (an early variety of Celtic). This language was widespread in Europe, but it shared Gaul with other languages (including at least the Aquitanian language, and also possibly a separate Belgic language). The Latin name for Gaul, still used as the modern Greek word for France, is Gallia (note).

Further reading

  • Mary Elvira Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, comp. rev. by Heny M. Leicester (Easton, Pa.: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968), pp. 643-649.


Sources Index of Persons Index of Alleged Elements