100. Fermium - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

eXTReMe Tracker
This site comprises 120 pages of text and photos, one for each element, and several pages for access. – For captions or explanatory texts move your mouse over illustrations, links etc.

100
Fermium
Fermium – Fermium – Fermium – Fermio – サェルミウム – Фермий – 鐨
Fm
Multilingual dictionary

Indo-European
Fermium Latin

— Germanic
Fermium Afrikaans
Fermium Danish
Fermium German
Fermium English
Fermium Faroese
Fermium Frisian (West)
Fermín Icelandic
Fermium Luxembourgish
Fermium Dutch
Fermium Norwegian
Fermium Swedish

— Italic
Fermio Aragonese
Fermiumu Aromanian
Fermiu Asturian
Fermi Catalan
Fermio Spanish
Fermium French
Fermi Friulian
Fermio Galician
Fermio Italian
Férmi Lombard
Fermi Occitan
Férmio Portuguese
Fermiu Romanian - Moldovan

— Slavic
Фермий [Fermij] Bulgarian
Fermij[um] Bosnian
Фермій [fermij] Belarusian
Fermium Czech
Fermij Croatian
Ferm Kashubian
Фермиум [Fermium] Macedonian
Ferm Polish
Фермий [Fermij] Russian
Fermium Slovak
Fermij Slovenian
Фермијум [Fermijum] Serbian
Фермій [fermij] Ukrainian

— Baltic
Fermis Lithuanian
Fermijs Latvian
Fermis Samogitian

— Celtic
Fermiom Breton
Ffermiwm Welsh
Fearmiam Gaelic (Irish)
Feirmiam Gaelic (Scottish)
Fermium Gaelic (Manx)
Fermyum Cornish

— Other Indo-European
Φερμιο [fermio] Greek
Ֆերմիում [fermium] Armenian
Fermium[i] Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
Fermiyûm Kurdish
Фермий [fermij] Ossetian
Фермий [Fermi'] Tajik

— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
ফার্মিয়াম [phārmiẏāma] Bengali
فرمیم [frmym] Persian
ફર્મિયમનો [pharmiyamano] Gujarati
फर्मियम [pharmiyama] Hindi

Finno-Ugric
Fermium Estonian
Fermium Finnish
Fermium Hungarian
Фермий [Fermij] Komi
Фермий [Fermij] Mari
Ферми [fermi] Moksha
Fermium Võro

Altaic
Fermium Azerbaijani
Ферми [Fermi] Chuvash
Фермий [fermij] Kazakh
Фермий [Fermij] Kyrgyz
Ферми [fermi] Mongolian
Fermiyum Turkish
فېرمىي [fermiy] Uyghur
Fermiy Uzbek

Other (Europe)
Fermioa Basque
ფერმიუმი [p'ermiumi] Georgian

Afro-Asiatic
فرميوم [fīrmiyūm] Arabic
פרמיום [fermium] Hebrew
Fermju[m] Maltese

Sino-Tibetan
Fi (鐨) Hakka
サェルミウム [ferumiumu] Japanese
페르뮴 [pereumyum] Korean
เฟอร์เมียม [foemiam] Thai
Fecmi Vietnamese
[fei4 / fai3] Chinese

Malayo-Polynesian
Fermyo Cebuano
Fermium Indonesian
Fermium Māori
Fermium Malay

Other Asiatic
ഫെര്‍മിയം [phermiyam] Malayalam
பெர்மியம் [permiyam] Tamil

Africa
Femu Lingala
Fermiamo Sesotho
Fermi Swahili

North-America
Fermio Nahuatl

South-America
Fermyu Quechua

Creole
Fermimi Sranan Tongo

Artificial
Fermio Esperanto

New names
Fermion Atomic Elements
Bobombium Dorseyville
memory peg

Artificial radioactive element
melting point -- °C; -- °F
boiling point -- °C; -- °F
density -- g/cc; -- pounds/cubic foot
1953 Albert Ghiorso and co-workers, Berkeley, Calif., USA
Enrico Fermi (1901-1954)

History & Etymology

First prepared in 1953 by Albert Ghiorso, Stanley G. Thompson, Gary H. Higgins, Glenn T. Seaborg (from the Radiation Laboratory and Department of Chemistry of the University of California), Martin H. Studier, P.R. Fields, Sherman M. Fried, H. Diamond, J.F. Mech, G.L. Pyle, John R. Huizenga, A. Hirsch, W.M. Manning (from the Argonne National Laboratory), C.I. Browne, H. Louise Smith, and R.W. Spence (from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory) in first thermonuclear explosion of November 1952, together with Einsteinium. From the coral found on the spot of the explosion was it possible to extract only 200 atoms of element #100, and they identified it on so minute quantity of material (see also Einsteinium).

Both elements were named after eminent scientists, making these the first of a series named like this. The choice of Fermium for element #100 has proven to be prescient since it is the last element to be synthesized using neutron caption reactions, which were extensively studied by Fermi, who had nothing to do with this element, but who was involved in the construction of the first atomic bomb.

In 1953 researchers at the Nobel Institute in Stockholm prepared also element #100, they proposed the name Centurium (Ct), derived from the Latin Centum = hundred. This name appeared also in non-specialist magazines of the year 1950/51 (Cf. Einsteinium). Because of the military secrets, the American discovery was not made public at that time. After their publication in 1955 it became clear Fermium has the priority.

Enrico Fermi
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 28 November 1954), Italian physicist, particularly remembered for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, nuclear and particle physics, and statistical mechanics. Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1938 for his work on induced radioactivity, Fermi is widely regarded as one of the leading scientists of the 20th century, highly accomplished in both theory and experiment. Except for Fermium, the Fermi National Accelerator Lab, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, and a type of particles called fermions are named after him (note).

An on-line biographies is available on the website of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois.


Enrico Fermi, and Ernest O. Lawrence, two scientist who have elements named after them: Fermium (#100) and Lawrencium (#103)


Further reading
  • Mary Elvira Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, comp. rev. by Heny M. Leicester (Easton, Pa.: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968), pp. 850-851.
  • Earl K. Hyde & Glenn T. Seaborg, Transurane : Teil A 1, I: Die Elemente. Gmelins Handbuch der anorganische Chemie, Ergänzungswerk zur 8. Aufl.; Band 7a. Weinheim/Bergstrasse: Chemie, 1973.
  • Glenn T. Seaborg, Transuranium elements: A Half Century. Remarks at ACS Symposium to Commemorate the 50th Anniversary of Transuranium Elements, Washington D.C., August 27, 1990. (PDF-file available on-line).
  • Glenn T. Seaborg, Early History of LBNL, A transcript of the lecture on the 65th Anniversary of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, August 26, 1996 (on-line).
  • A. Ghiorso, S.G. Thompson, G.H. Higgins, G.T. Seaborg, M.H. Studier, P.R. Fields, H. Diamond, J.F. Mech, G.L. Pyle, J.R. Huizenga, A. Hirsch, W.M. Manning, C.I. Browne, H.L. Smith, and R.W. Spence, "New Elements Einsteinium and Fermium, Atomic Numbers 99 and 100". Phys. Rev. 99 (1955), 1048.

Sources Index of Persons Index of Alleged Elements