99. Einsteinium - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

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99
Einsteinium
Einsteinium – Einsteinium – Einsteinium – Einstenio – アインスタイカウム – Эйнштейний – 鎄
Es
Multilingual dictionary

Indo-European
Einsteinium Latin

— Germanic
Einsteinium Afrikaans
Einsteinium Danish
Einsteinium German
Einsteinium English
Einsteinium Faroese
Einsteinium Frisian (West)
Einsteinín Icelandic
Einsteinium Luxembourgish
Einsteinium Dutch
Einsteinium Norwegian
Einsteinium Swedish

— Italic
Einsteinio Aragonese
Einshteniumu Aromanian
Einsteniu Asturian
Einsteini Catalan
Einstenio Spanish
Einsteinium French
Einsteni Friulian
Einstenio Galician
Einstenio Italian
Einsteini Lombard
Einsteini Occitan
Einstânio Portuguese
Einsteiniu Romanian - Moldovan

— Slavic
Айнштайний [Ajnštajnij] Bulgarian
Einsteinij[um] Bosnian
Эйнштэйній [èjnštèjnij] Belarusian
Einsteinium Czech
Einsteinij Croatian
Einstein Kashubian
Ајнштајниум [Ajnštajnium] Macedonian
Einstein Polish
Эйнштейний [Èjnštejnij] Russian
Einsteinium Slovak
Ajnštajnij Slovenian
Ајнштајнијум [Ajnštajnijum] Serbian
Ейнштейній [ejnštejnij] Ukrainian

— Baltic
Einšteinis Lithuanian
Einšteinijs Latvian
Einšteinis Samogitian

— Celtic
Einsteiniom Breton
Einsteiniwm Welsh
Éinstéiniam Gaelic (Irish)
Einstèiniam Gaelic (Scottish)
Einsteinium Gaelic (Manx)
Eynsteynyum Cornish

— Other Indo-European
Αινστανιο [ainstanio] Greek
Էյնչտեյնիում [ēynch'teynium] Armenian
Ajnshtajnium, ²Einsteiniumi Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
Einsteiniyûm Kurdish
Эйнштейний [èjnštejnij] Ossetian
Эйнштейний [E'nshte'ni'] Tajik

— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
আইনস্টাইনিয়াম [āinasṭāiniẏāma] Bengali
اینشتینیم [aynštynym] Persian
આઇનસ્ટાઇનિયમનો [āinasṭāiniyamano] Gujarati
आइन्स्टाइनियम [āinsṭāiniyama] Hindi

Finno-Ugric
Einsteinium Estonian
Einsteinium Finnish
Einsteinium Hungarian
Эйнштейний [Èjnštejnij] Komi
Эйнштейний [Èjnštejnij] Mari
Еинстеини [einsteini] Moksha
Einsteinium Võro

Altaic
Eynşteynium Azerbaijani
Эйнштейни [Èjnštejni] Chuvash
Эйнштейний [èjnštejnij] Kazakh
Эйнштейний [Èjnštejnij] Kyrgyz
Эйнштейни [èjnštejni] Mongolian
Eınsteınyum Turkish
ئېينشتېينىي ['eynşteyniy] Uyghur
Eynshteyniy Uzbek

Other (Europe)
Einsteinioa Basque
ეინშტეინიუმი [einšteiniumi] Georgian

Afro-Asiatic
انيشتنيوم [āynshtāyniyūm] Arabic
אינשטייניום [einsteinium] Hebrew
Ejnstenjum, ²Einsteinju Maltese

Sino-Tibetan
Oi (鑀) Hakka
アインスタイカウム [ainsutainiumu] Japanese
아인시타이늄 or 아인슈타이늄 [a'insyuta'inyum] Korean
ไอน์สไตเนียม [aisatainiam] Thai
Ensteni Vietnamese
[ai1 / oi1] Chinese

Malayo-Polynesian
Einstenyo Cebuano
Einsteinium Indonesian
Einsteinium Māori
Einsteinium Malay

Other Asiatic
ഐന്‍സ്റ്റീനിയം [ainsṟṟīniyam] Malayalam
ஐன்ஸ்டீனியம் [aiṉsţīṉiyam] Tamil

Africa
Eselemu Lingala
Einsteiniamo Sesotho
Einsteni Swahili

North-America
Einstenio Nahuatl

South-America
Einsteinyu Quechua

Creole
Aynstaynimi Sranan Tongo

Artificial
Ejnstejnio Esperanto

New names
Einsteon Atomic Elements
Secretium Dorseyville
memory peg

Artificial radioactive element
melting point -- °C; -- °F
boiling point -- °C; -- °F
density -- g/cc; -- pounds/cubic foot
1952 Albert Ghiorso and co-workers, Berkeley, Calif., USA
Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

History & Etymology

First prepared in 1952 by Albert Ghiorso, Stanley G. Thompson, Gary H. Higgins, Glenn T. Seaborg (from the Radiation Laboratory and Department of Chemistry of the University of California), Martin H. Studier, P.R. Fields, Sherman M. Fried, H. Diamond, J.F. Mech, G.L. Pyle, John R. Huizenga, A. Hirsch, W.M. Manning (from the Argonne National Laboratory), C.I. Browne, H. Louise Smith, and R.W. Spence (from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory) by irradation of Uranium with neutrons. Element #99 was, together with Fermium discovered unexpectedly in the debris from the thermonuclear explosion (called the "Mike" event), conducted at Eniwetok Atoll in the Pacific Ocean in November 1952.


Codiscoverers of Einsteinium (1952) and Fermium (1953) at symposium commemorating the 25th anniversary of their discovery held at the LBL. Left to right (front row): Louise Smith, Sherman Fried, Gary Higgins. Left to right (back row): Albert Ghiorso, Rod Spence, Glenn Seaborg, Paul Fields and John Huizenga. [caption according to Seaborg 1996, the list of names does not agree with the list given by Seaborg in 1973].

The Materials Testing Reactor in Idaho came into operation during 1952, and provided a neutron flux an order of magnitude higher than previously available. At the same time, techniques for accelerating useful beams of heavy ions were being developed in several laboratories. These developments ensured the eventual synthesis of elements #99 and #100, but the first observation of these elements came unexpectedly, from a quite unrelated experiment - the explosion of the first thermonuclear bomb in the Pacific during November 1952.

Samples of debris were collected by drone aircraft flying through the cloud and analyzed. Among the new activities detected were alpha-emitters of 6.6 and 7.1 MeV, indicating that a brief exposition to a very high neutron flux can have similar results to the slow irradiation by heavy elements made on the labs in Idaho. From the analysis of these samples it was possible to identify the source of the alpha particles with that specific energy as the new elements #99 and #100 respectively.

For security reasons, these observations in late 1952 and early 1953 could not be published in the open literature. The first publication concerning element 99, in 1954, reported the production of a 7.3 minute isotope. Shortly afterwards, also in 1954, the detection of elements 99 and 100 in plutonium samples which had been exposed to an intense neutron flux was reported.

The full story of the discovery of elements 99 and 100 was finally published in mid-1955 by a group of authors of the laboratories involved. Element #99 was named Einsteinium after Albert Einstein, who himself had no connection to the element.

Athenium

In non-specialist magazines of the year 1950/51 the first reports were published on the discovery of elements 99 and 100. Element 99 got the name Athenium (An), after the Greek capital Athens, were 2500 years ago for the first time the philosophical idea of atoms as building stones of matter was developed. Element 100 was named Centurium (see Fermium) (note).

Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein Albert Einstein (Ulm 14 March 1879-Princeton, N.J., 18 April 1955), theoretical physicist who is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time. His many contributions to physics include the special and general theories of relativity, the founding of relativistic cosmology, the first post-Newtonian expansion, explaining the perihelion advance of Mercury, prediction of the deflection of light by gravity and gravitational lensing, the first fluctuation dissipation theorem which explained the Brownian movement of molecules, the photon theory and wave-particle duality, the quantum theory of atomic motion in solids, the zero-point energy concept, the semiclassical version of the Schrödinger equation, and the quantum theory of a monatomic gas which predicted Bose–Einstein condensation.

Einstein is best known for his theories of special relativity and general relativity. He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect."

Einstein published more than 300 scientific and over 150 non-scientific works.[4] He is often regarded as the father of modern physics (note).

Here a comprehensive biography. by the School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland.


Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein, two scientist who have elements named after them: Einsteinium (#99) and Bohrium (#107)

Further reading
  • Mary Elvira Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, comp. rev. by Heny M. Leicester (Easton, Pa.: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968), pp. 850-851.
  • Earl K. Hyde & Glenn T. Seaborg, Transurane : Teil A 1, I: Die Elemente. Gmelins Handbuch der anorganische Chemie, Ergänzungswerk zur 8. Aufl.; Band 7a. Weinheim/Bergstrasse: Chemie, 1973.
  • Glenn T. Seaborg, Early History of LBNL, A transcript of the lecture on the 65th Anniversary of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, August 26, 1996 (on-line).
  • A. Ghiorso, S.G. Thompson, G.H. Higgins, G.T. Seaborg, M.H. Studier, P.R. Fields, H. Diamond, J.F. Mech, G.L. Pyle, J.R. Huizenga, A. Hirsch, W.M. Manning, C.I. Browne, H.L. Smith, and R.W. Spence, "New Elements Einsteinium and Fermium, Atomic Numbers 99 and 100". Phys. Rev. 99 (1955), 1048.

Sources Index of Persons Index of Alleged Elements