Elementymology & Elements Multidict
Einsteinium – Einsteinium – Einsteinium – Einstenio – アインスタイニウム – Эйнштейний – 鎄
Einsteinium Frisian (West)
Einsteiniu Romanian - Moldovan
SlavicАйнштайний [Ajnštajnij] Bulgarian
Эйнштэйній [èjnštèjnij] Belarusian
Ајнштајниум [Ajnštajnium] Macedonian
Эйнштейний [Èjnštejnij] Russian
Ајнштајнијум [Ajnštajnijum] Serbian
Ейнштейній [ejnštejnij] Ukrainian
Éinstéiniam Gaelic (Irish)
Einstèiniam Gaelic (Scottish)
Einsteinium Gaelic (Manx)
Other Indo-EuropeanΑινστανιο [ainstanio] Greek
Էյնչտեյնիում [ēynch'teynium] Armenian
Ajnshtajnium, ²Einsteiniumi Albanian
Эйнштейний [èjnštejnij] Ossetian
Эйнштейний [E'nshte'ni'] Tajik
Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryanআইনস্টাইনিয়াম [āinasṭāiniẏāma] Bengali
اینشتینیم [aynštynym] Persian
આઇનસ્ટાઇનિયમનો [āinasṭāiniyamano] Gujarati
आइन्स्टाइनियम [āinsṭāiniyama] Hindi
Эйнштейний [Èjnštejnij] Komi
Эйнштейний [Èjnštejnij] Mari
Еинстеини [einsteini] Moksha
Эйнштейни [Èjnštejni] Chuvash
Эйнштейний [èjnštejnij] Kazakh
Эйнштейний [Èjnštejnij] Kyrgyz
Эйнштейни [èjnštejni] Mongolian
ئېينشتېينىي ['eynşteyniy] Uyghur
Other (Europe)Einsteinioa Basque
ეინშტეინიუმი [einšteiniumi] Georgian
Afro-Asiaticانيشتنيوم [āynshtāyniyūm] Arabic
אינשטייניום [einsteinium] Hebrew
Ejnstenjum, ²Einsteinju Maltese
Sino-TibetanOi (鑀) Hakka
アインスタイニウム [ainsutainiumu] Japanese
아인시타이늄 or 아인슈타이늄 [a'insyuta'inyum] Korean
ไอน์สไตเนียม [aisatainiam] Thai
鎄 [ai1 / oi1] Chinese
Other Asiaticഐന്സ്റ്റീനിയം [ainsṟṟīniyam] Malayalam
ஐன்ஸ்டீனியம் [aiṉsţīṉiyam] Tamil
CreoleAynstaynimi Sranan Tongo
New namesEinsteon Atomic Elements
History & Etymology
First prepared in 1952 by Albert Ghiorso, Stanley G. Thompson, Gary H. Higgins, Glenn T. Seaborg (from the Radiation Laboratory and Department of Chemistry of the University of California), Martin H. Studier, P.R. Fields, Sherman M. Fried, H. Diamond, J.F. Mech, G.L. Pyle, John R. Huizenga, A. Hirsch, W.M. Manning (from the Argonne National Laboratory), C.I. Browne, H. Louise Smith, and R.W. Spence (from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory) by irradiation of Uranium with neutrons. Element #99 was, together with Fermium discovered unexpectedly in the debris from the thermonuclear explosion (called the "Mike" event), conducted at Eniwetok Atoll in the Pacific Ocean in November 1952.
Codiscoverers of Einsteinium (1952) and Fermium (1953) at symposium commemorating the 25th anniversary of their discovery held at the LBL. Left to right (front row): Louise Smith, Sherman Fried, Gary Higgins. Left to right (back row): Albert Ghiorso, Rod Spence, Glenn Seaborg, Paul Fields and John Huizenga. [caption according to Seaborg 1996, the list of names does not agree with the list given by Seaborg in 1973].
The Materials Testing Reactor in Idaho came into operation during 1952, and provided a neutron flux an order of magnitude higher than previously available. At the same time, techniques for accelerating useful beams of heavy ions were being developed in several laboratories. These developments ensured the eventual synthesis of elements #99 and #100, but the first observation of these elements came unexpectedly, from a quite unrelated experiment - the explosion of the first thermonuclear bomb in the Pacific during November 1952.
Samples of debris were collected by drone aircraft flying through the cloud and analyzed. Among the new activities detected were alpha-emitters of 6.6 and 7.1 MeV, indicating that a brief exposition to a very high neutron flux can have similar results to the slow irradiation by heavy elements made on the labs in Idaho. From the analysis of these samples it was possible to identify the source of the alpha particles with that specific energy as the new elements #99 and #100 respectively.
For security reasons, these observations in late 1952 and early 1953 could not be published in the open literature. The first publication concerning element 99, in 1954, reported the production of a 7.3 minute isotope. Shortly afterwards, also in 1954, the detection of elements 99 and 100 in plutonium samples which had been exposed to an intense neutron flux was reported.
The full story of the discovery of elements 99 and 100 was finally published in mid-1955 by a group of authors of the laboratories involved. Element #99 was named Einsteinium after Albert Einstein, who himself had no connection to the element.
In non-specialist magazines of the year 1950/51 the first reports were published on the discovery of elements 99 and 100. Element 99 got the name Athenium (An), after the Greek capital Athens, were 2500 years ago for the first time the philosophical idea of atoms as building stones of matter was developed. Element 100 was named Centurium (see Fermium) (note).
Albert EinsteinAlbert Einstein (Ulm 14 March 1879-Princeton, N.J., 18 April 1955), theoretical physicist who is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time. His many contributions to physics include the special and general theories of relativity, the founding of relativistic cosmology, the first post-Newtonian expansion, explaining the perihelion advance of Mercury, prediction of the deflection of light by gravity and gravitational lensing, the first fluctuation dissipation theorem which explained the Brownian movement of molecules, the photon theory and wave-particle duality, the quantum theory of atomic motion in solids, the zero-point energy concept, the semiclassical version of the Schrödinger equation, and the quantum theory of a monatomic gas which predicted Bose–Einstein condensation.
Einstein is best known for his theories of special relativity and general relativity. He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect."
Einstein published more than 300 scientific and over 150 non-scientific works. He is often regarded as the father of modern physics (note).
Here a comprehensive biography. by the School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland.
Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein, two scientist who have elements named after them: Einsteinium (#99) and Bohrium (#107)