110. Darmstadtium - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

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110
Darmstadtium
Darmstadtium – Darmstadtium – Darmstadtium – Darmstadtio – ダームスタチウム – Дармштадтий – 鐽
Ds
Multilingual dictionary

Indo-European
Darmstadtium Latin

— Germanic
Darmstadtium Afrikaans
Darmstadtium Danish
Darmstadtium German
Darmstadtium English
Darmstadtium Faroese
Darmstadtium Frisian (West)
Darmstadtín Icelandic
Darmstadtium Luxembourgish
Darmstadtium Dutch
Darmstadtium Norwegian
Darmstadtium Swedish

— Italic
Darmstadtio Aragonese
Darmstadtiu Asturian
Darmstadti Catalan
Darmstadtio Spanish
Darmstadtium French
Darmstadti Friulian
Darmstadtio Galician
Darmstadtio Italian
Darmstadi Lombard
Darmstadti Occitan
Darmstádio Portuguese
Darmstadtiu Romanian - Moldovan

— Slavic
Дармщадтий [Darmščadtij] Bulgarian
Darmštatijum, ²Darmstadtij Bosnian
Дармштатый [Darmštatyj] Belarusian
Darmstadtium Czech
Darmstadij Croatian
Дармштадтиум [Darmštadtium] Macedonian
Darmsztadt Polish
Дармштадтий [Darmštadtij] Russian
Darmstadtium Slovak
Darmštatij Slovenian
Дармштатијум [Darmštatijum] Serbian
Дармштадтій [Darmštadtij] Ukrainian

— Baltic
Darmstadtis Lithuanian
Darmštatijs Latvian
Darmstadtis Samogitian

— Celtic
Darmstadtiwm Welsh
Darmstaidtiam Gaelic (Irish)
Darmstadtium Gaelic (Manx)

— Other Indo-European
Νταρμστάντιο [darmstadio] Greek
Darmstadtium[i] Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
Darmstadtyiûm Kurdish
Дармштадтий [Darmštadti'] Tajik

— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
ডারমস্টাডটিয়াম [ḍāramasṭāḍaṭiẏāma] Bengali
دارمشتاتیم [darmštatym] Persian
ડાર્મસ્ટાટિયમનો [ḍārmsṭāḍiyamano] Gujarati
डार्म्स्टेडशियम [ḍārmsṭeḍaśiyama] Hindi

Finno-Ugric
Darmstadtium Estonian
Darmstadtium Finnish
Darmstadtium Hungarian
Дармштадтий [Darmštadtij] Komi
Дармштадтий [Darmštadtij] Mari
Darmstadtium Võro

Altaic
Darmstadtium Azerbaijani
Дармштадти [Darmštadti] Chuvash
Дармщтадти [Darmštadti] Mongolian
Darmstadtiyum Turkish
Darmshtadtiy Uzbek

Other (Europe)
Darmstadtio Basque

Afro-Asiatic
دارمشتاتيوم [] Arabic
דרמשטטיום [--] Hebrew
Darmstadtju Maltese

Sino-Tibetan
Tha̍t (鐽) Hakka
ダームスタチウム [dāmusutatiumu] Japanese
ดาร์มลตัดเชียม [dāmsatatchiam] Thai
Darmstadti Vietnamese
[--] Chinese

Malayo-Polynesian
Darmstadtyo Cebuano
Darmstadtium Indonesian
Darmstadtium Māori
Darmstadtium Malay

Other Asiatic
ഡാംഷ്റ്റാറ്റിയം [ḍāmṣṟṟāṟṟiyam] Malayalam
டாம்ஸ்ராட்டியம் [ţāmsrāţţiyam] Tamil

Africa
Damtadu? Lingala
Darmstadtiamo Sesotho
Darmstadti Swahili

North-America
Darmstadtio Nahuatl

South-America
Darmstadtiyu Quechua

Creole
Darmstadimi Sranan Tongo

Artificial
Darmŝtatio Esperanto

New names
memory peg

Artificial radioactive element
melting point -- °C; -- °F
boiling point -- °C; -- °F
density -- g/cc; -- pounds/cubic foot
1994 Sigurd Hofmann and co-workers, Darmstadt, Germany
Darmstadt, town in Germany

History & Etymology

First prepared in 1994 by Sigurd Hofmann, Victor Ninov, Fritz Peter Heßberger, Peter Armbruster, H. Folger, Gottfried Münzenberg, H.J. Schött (Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany), Andre Georgievich Popeko, Alexander Vladimirovich Yeremin, A.N. Andreyev ( . .. / Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, FLNR - / JINR, (Dubna), Russia), S. Saro, Rudolf Janik (Katedra jadrovej fyziky, Univerzita Komenského, Bratislava, Slovakia), and Matti Leino (Fysiikan laitos, Jyväskylän Yliopisto, Finland).

The element does not have a name yet, therefore the systematic IUPAC name is used (system explained below).

Production and Decay of 269110 (Abstract)

In an experiment carried out to identify element 110, we have observed an alpha-decay chain, that can be unambiguously assigned to 269110. In a series of preexperiments the excitation functions of the fusion reactions

50Ti + 208Pb → 258104*

and

58Fe + 208Pb → 266108*

were measured with high precision in order to get the optimum projectile energies for the production of these heavy elements. The cross-section maxima of the 1n evaporation channels were observed at excitation energies of 15.6 MeV and 13.4 MeV, respectively. These data result in an optimum excitation energy of 12.3 MeV of the compound nucleus for the production of 269110 in the reaction

62Ni + 208Pb → 269110 + 1n

In irradiations at the corresponding beam energy of 311 MeV we have observed a decay chain of 4 subsequent alpha decays. This can be assigned to the isotope with the mass number 269 of the element 110 on the basis of delayed α-α coincidences. The accurately measured decay data of the daughter isotopes of the elements 108 to 102, obtained in the previous experiments, were used. The isotope 269-110 decays with a half-life of (270 +1300 -120) micro seconds by emission of (11.132+-0.020) MeV alpha particles. The production cross-section is (3.3 +6.2 -2.7) pb.

IUPAP/IUPAC Joint working party assessment: Element 110 has been discovered by this collaboration (Karol et al., 2001, 961).

Our Berkeley group believes that element 110 should receive the name 'hahnium,' in honour of the scientific giant 'Otto Hahn.' This also has the advantage that it would then not be necessary for so many of us to continue to use the name 'Hahnium' for element 105 to honor Otto Hahn.
(Glenn T. Seaborg in a letter, dated 3 November 1997, to Dr. G.J. Leigh, Chairman of the CNIC (Commission 2.2 on Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry), recounted in The Transuranium People, The Untold Story by Darleane C Hoffman, Albert Ghiorso and Glenn T. Seaborg (Imperial College Press 2000).

"Element 105 had by then been renamed Dubnium (after its place of discovery, Dubna in the USSR), and Element 110 was finally named Darmstadtium in 2003 (again after its place of discovery, Darmstadt, Germany). In 1994, Element 108 was named Hahnium, symbol Ha, by CNIC and IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry), but this was subsequently renamed Hassium (after the German state of Hesse in which Darmstadt is found). Despite these attempts at atomic longevity, Hahn, the co-discoverer of nuclear fission, and Nobel Prize Winner (1944, Chemistry) now no longer resides in an elemental name, although Germany's first nuclear ship was called the Otto Hahn." (note):

In January 2003 IUPAC recommended the name Darmstadtium, symbol Ds, for element 110: "A joint IUPAC-IUPAP Working Party (JWP) has confirmed the discovery of element number 110 and this by the collaboration of Hofmann et al. from the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany. In accord with IUPAC procedures, the discoverers have proposed a name and symbol for the element. The Inorganic Chemistry Division Committee now recommends this proposal for acceptance. The proposed name is darmstadtium with symbol Ds. This proposal lies within the long established tradition of naming an element after the place of its discovery." (PDF file on-line).

Darmstadt
Darmstadt, city in the Bundesland (federal state) of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine Main Area. The city of Darmstadt was founded by the Counts of Katzenelnbogen in 1330, though settlement in the area is known to have been present as early as the late 11th century. However, the sandy soils in the Darmstadt area, ill-suited for agriculture in times before industrial fertilisation, prevented any larger settlement from developing, until the city became the seat of the Landgraves of Hessen-Darmstadt in the 16th century.

As the administrative centre of an increasingly prosperous duchy, the city gained in prominence during the following centuries. In the 20th century, industry (especially chemicals) as well as large science and electronics (later information technology) sectors became increasingly important, and are still a major part of the city's economy. Darmstadt also has a large tertiary education sector, with three major universities and numerous associated institutions.

The name Darmstadt first appears towards the end of the 11th century, then Darmundestat; Literally translated, the current German name Darmstadt means "Intestine City". This is just a coincidence however, and the origins of the name are unknown. Even locals often believe, incorrectly, that the name derives from the 'Darmbach' (a small stream formerly running through the city). In fact the stream received its current name much later, after the city, not vice versa (note).

Further reading
  • S. Hofman et al., "Production and Decay of 269110." Zeitschrift für Physik A 350 (1995), 277-280 (Submitted November 14, 1994) (Abstract on-line).
  • P.J. Karol, H. Nakahara, B.W. Petley, & E. Vogt, On the Discovery of the Elements 110112 (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure Appl.Chem. 73, 6 (2001), pp.959967 (PDF file on-line).


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