24. Chromium - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

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24
Chromium
Chroom – Chrom – Chrome – Cromo – クロム – Хром – 鉻
Cr
Multilingual dictionary

Indo-European
Chromium Latin

— Germanic
Chroom Afrikaans
Chrom, Krom Danish
Chrom German
Chromium English
Krom Faroese
Groom Frisian (West)
Króm Icelandic
Chrom Luxembourgish
Chroom Dutch
Krom Norwegian
Krom Swedish

— Italic
Cromo Aragonese
Cromu Aromanian
Cromu Asturian
Crom Catalan
Cromo Spanish
Chrome French
Crom Friulian
Cromo Galician
Cromo Italian
Cròom Lombard
Crom Occitan
Crómo Portuguese
Crom Romanian - Moldovan

— Slavic
Хром [Hrom] Bulgarian
Hrom Bosnian
Хром [hrom] Belarusian
Chrom Czech
Krom Croatian
Chróm Kashubian
Хром [Hrom] Macedonian
Chrom Polish
Хром [Hrom] Russian
Chróm Slovak
Krom Slovenian
Хром [Hrom] Serbian
Хром [xrom] Ukrainian

— Baltic
Chromas Lithuanian
Hroms Latvian
Chruoms Samogitian

— Celtic
Krom Breton
Cromiwm Welsh
Cróimiam Gaelic (Irish)
Cròimiam Gaelic (Scottish)
Cromium Gaelic (Manx)
Cromyum Cornish

— Other Indo-European
Χρωμιο [chrōmio] Greek
Քրոմ [k'rom] Armenian
Krom[i] Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
Krom Kurdish
Хром [hrom] Ossetian
Хром [Hrom] Tajik

— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
ক্রোমিয়াম [krom;iẏāma] Bengali
کروم [krwm] Persian
ક્રોમિયમનો [kromiyamano] Gujarati
क्रोमियम [kromiyama] Hindi

Finno-Ugric
Kroom Estonian
Kromi Finnish
Króm Hungarian
Хром [Hrom] Komi
Хром [Hrom] Mari
Крома [kroma] Moksha
Kruum Võro

Altaic
Xrom Azerbaijani
Хром [Hrom] Chuvash
Хром [xrom] Kazakh
Хром [Hrom] Kyrgyz
Хром [hrom] Mongolian
Krom Turkish
خروم [hrom] Uyghur
Xrom Uzbek

Other (Europe)
Kromoa Basque
ქრომი [k'romi] Georgian

Afro-Asiatic
كروم [krūm] Arabic
כרום [chrom] Hebrew
Kromjum, ²Kromu Maltese

Sino-Tibetan
Kok (鉻) Hakka
クロム [kuromu] Japanese
크롬, 2크로뮴 [keurom, keuromyum] Korean
โครเมียม [khrōmiam] Thai
Crom Vietnamese
[ming2 / ming5] Chinese

Malayo-Polynesian
Cromo Cebuano
Krom Indonesian
Konukita Māori
Kromium, ²Krom Malay

Other Asiatic
ക്രോമിയം [krōmiyam] Malayalam
குரோமியம் [kurōmiyam] Tamil

Africa
Kolomo Lingala
Kheromiamo Sesotho
Kromi Swahili

North-America
Tlapāltepoztli Nahuatl

South-America
Krumu Quechua

Creole
Kromimi Sranan Tongo

Artificial
Kromo Esperanto

New names
Cromion Atomic Elements
Shiny Ships Dorseyville
memory peg

Very lustrous bluish-white metal which can take a very high polish
melting point 1857 °C; 3375 °F
boiling point 2672 °C; 4842 °F
density 7.18-7.20 g/cc; 448.23-449.48 pounds/cubic foot
1797 Nicolas-Louis Vauquelin, France
χρωμα (chrōma) = colour (Greek)

History & Etymology

In 1761, Johann Gottlob Lehmann (1719-1767) visited the Beresov Mines on the eastern slopes of the Ural Mountains where he obtained samples of an orange-red mineral which he termed Siberian red lead. Returned to St. Petersburg in 1766, he analysed this mineral and discovered that it contained lead "mineralised with a selenitic spar and iron particles." In fact, the mineral was crocoite, a lead chromate (PbCrO4). He described the mineral in a letter to the naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc, comte de Buffon (1707-1788), but died the next year when a retort containing arsenic burst upon heating.

In 1797 Nicolas-Louis Vauquelin (1763-1829), noting its beauty, scarcity, value equal to gold, and several contradictory chemical analyses, determined to find the correct composition of crocoite. He boiled pulverized crocoite with two parts potash obtaining a yellow solution. The solution formed a beautiful red precipitate with a mercury salt, and a yellow precipitate with lead. Adding tin muratic turned the solution green. In 1798 he precipitated lead with muratic acid, dried the green solid, then cooked it for half an hour in a charcoal crucible with charcoal dust. Upon cooling he discovered a network or gray, metallic needles weighing one third of the original.

Following the advice of Antoine-François comte de Fourcroy (1755-1809) and Abbé René-Just Haüy (1743-1822) Vauquelin named the new element Chromium, because of the many colours of its compounds. The name derives from the Greek χρωμα [chrōma] = colour.

Alternative name
  • In the 19th century a native Czech name was proposed: barvík, from "barva" = colour.

 

Chemistianity 1873
OMYAN
CHROMIUM, source of the bright Chrome Yellows,
Is a bright metal, that crystallizes in cubes;
It is exceedingly difficult to fuse,
A heat that will vapourize Platinum
Is insufficient to melt Chromium.
J. Carrington Sellars, Chemistianity, 1873, p. 140
Further reading
  • Mary Elvira Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, comp. rev. by Heny M. Leicester (Easton, Pa.: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968), pp. 271-281.

Information:


Sources Index of Persons Index of Alleged Elements