22. Titanium - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

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22
Titanium
Titaan – Titan – Titane – Titanio – チタン – Титан – 鈦
Ti
Multilingual dictionary

Indo-European
Titanium Latin

— Germanic
Titaan Afrikaans
Titan Danish
Titan German
Titanium English
Titan Faroese
Titaan Frisian (West)
Titan Icelandic
Titan Luxembourgish
Titaan Dutch
Titan Norwegian
Titan Swedish

— Italic
Titanio Aragonese
Titanu Aromanian
Titaniu Asturian
Titani Catalan
Titanio Spanish
Titane French
Titani Friulian
Titanio Galician
Titanio Italian
Titàni Lombard
Titani Occitan
Titânio Portuguese
Titan Romanian - Moldovan

— Slavic
Титан [Titan] Bulgarian
Titanij[um] Bosnian
Тытан [tytan] Belarusian
Titan Czech
Titanij Croatian
Titan Kashubian
Титан [Titan] Macedonian
Tytan Polish
Титан [Titan] Russian
Titán Slovak
Titan Slovenian
Титан [Titan] Serbian
Титан [tytan] Ukrainian

— Baltic
Titanas Lithuanian
Titāns Latvian
Titans Samogitian

— Celtic
Titan Breton
Titaniwm Welsh
Tíotáiniam Gaelic (Irish)
Tìotainiam Gaelic (Scottish)
Çhitaanium Gaelic (Manx)
Tytanyum Cornish

— Other Indo-European
Τιτανιο [titanio] Greek
Տիտան [titan] Armenian
Titan[i] Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
Tîtanyûm Kurdish
Титан [titan] Ossetian
Титан [Titan] Tajik

— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
টাইটেনিয়াম [ṭāiṭeniẏāma] Bengali
تیتانیم [tytanym] Persian
ટાઇટેનિયમનો [ṭāiṭeniyamano] Gujarati
टाइटानियम [ṭāiṭāniyama] Hindi

Finno-Ugric
Titaan Estonian
Titaani Finnish
Titán Hungarian
Титан [Titan] Komi
Титан [Titan] Mari
Титан [titan] Moksha
Titaan Võro

Altaic
Titan Azerbaijani
Титан [Titan] Chuvash
Титан [titan] Kazakh
Титан [Titan] Kyrgyz
Титан [titan] Mongolian
Titan Turkish
تىتان [titan] Uyghur
Titan Uzbek

Other (Europe)
Titanioa Basque
ტიტანი [titani] Georgian

Afro-Asiatic
تيتانيوم [tītāniyūm] Arabic
טיטניום [titanium] Hebrew
Titanju[m] Maltese

Sino-Tibetan
Thai (鈦) Hakka
チタン [chitan] Japanese
타이타늄, 타타늄, 타탄 [ta'itanyum, titanyum, titan] Korean
ไทเทเนียม [thaitēniam] Thai
Titan Vietnamese
[tai4 / taai3] Chinese

Malayo-Polynesian
Titanyo Cebuano
Titanium Indonesian
Titanium Māori
Titanium Malay

Other Asiatic
ടൈറ്റാനിയം [ṭaiṟṟāniyam] Malayalam
டைட்டேனியம் [ţaiţţēṉiyam] Tamil

Africa
Titani Lingala
Titaniamo Sesotho
Titani Swahili

North-America
Titanio Nahuatl

South-America
Titanyu Quechua

Creole
Titanimi Sranan Tongo

Artificial
Titano Esperanto

New names
Titanion Atomic Elements
Ninthium Dorseyville
memory peg

Bright gray metal in pure form, but tends to be a bit darker as the purity decreases
melting point 1660 °C; 3020 °F
boiling point 3287 °C; 5949 °F
density 4.54 g/cc; 283.42 pounds/cubic foot
1791 William Gregor, England
Τιτανος (Titans) = children of the Earth (Greek mythology)
named by M.H. Klaproth after 1795

History & Etymology

The Cornish clergyman William Gregor (1761-1817) was interested in minerals and was acknowledged as greatly skilled by Berzelius. He analyzed a number of substances such as a black magnetic sand from the Menachan valley in his own parish in Cornwall (England). His analysis was published in 1791. The sand is black, and in external appearance resembles gunpowder. It included 45% reddish brown calx, which dissolved in sulfuric acid to give a yellow solution which became purple when reduced with zinc, tin, or iron. When the pulverized mineral was fused with powdered charcoal (a procedure that often reduces an ore to metal) a purple slag was formed. While he modestly claimed these were only disconnected facts, his friends agreed that this must be a new mineral.

The mineral was named menachanite (or ilmenite), the new earth in it was regarded as the oxide of a new metal, menachin. Mineral and metal were after the spot where it was found. The discovery received no acclaim but when Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1743-1817) separated rutile, or red schörl, from Hungary in 1795, he recognized the similarity to Gregor's menachan. He reported (note):

"that menachanite has for its constituent parts Iron, and a peculiar metallic oxide of an unknown nature. By the following examination it will appear that this substance, which besides iron, forms the second chief component principle of menachanite, is precisely the very same which constitutes the Hungarian red schörl."
Klaproth gave the following curious reason for naming the new element Titanium:
    "Whenever no name can be found for a new fossil which indicates its peculiar and characteristic properties (in which situation I find myself at present) I think it best to choose such a denomination as means nothing of itself, and thus can give no rise to any erroneous ideas. (as Lavoisier had suggested) In consequence of this, as I did in the case of Uranium, I shall borrow the name for this metallic substance from mythology, and in particular from the Titans, the first sons of the earth. I therefore call this new metallic genus Titanium."
The metal was first isolated by J.J. Berzelius in 1825. The first pure Titanium was prepared in 1910, by the New Zealand-born U.S. metallurgist Matthew A. Hunter at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, N.Y., U.S.) (mainly after Trapp).

The Titans (Τιτανος) are, in Greek mythology, a race of godlike giants, children of the Earth, who were considered to be the personifications of the forces of nature. They are the twelve children (six sons and six daughters) of the Heaven (Όυρανος [Ouranos]) and Earth (Γαια [Gaea]). Each son married, or had children of, one of his sisters. They are: Cronus and Rhea, Iapetus and Themis, Oceanus and Tethys, Hyperion and Theia, Crius and Mnemosyne, and Coeus and Phoebe (Encyclopedia Mythica).

Chemistianity 1873
EMYAN
TITANIUM, the Air absorbing Metalloid,
Whose Nitrogen compounds in copper-colour'd cubes,
Are found in certain kinds of Iron Slag,
In the free state is known only in gray powder,
With chemical properties much like Tin.
J. Carrington Sellars, Chemistianity, 1873, p. 91
Further reading
  • Mary Elvira Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, comp. rev. by Henry M. Leicester (Easton, Pa.: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968), pp. 520-525.

Sources Index of Persons Index of Alleged Elements