87. Francium - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

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87
Francium
Francium – Franzium – Francium – Francio – サランシウム – Франций – 鈁
Fr
Multilingual dictionary

Indo-European
Francium Latin

— Germanic
Fransium Afrikaans
Francium Danish
Franzium German
Francium English
Francium Faroese
Francium Frisian (West)
Fransín Icelandic
Franzium Luxembourgish
Francium Dutch
Francium Norwegian
Francium Swedish

— Italic
Franzio Aragonese
Frantsiumu Aromanian
Franciu Asturian
Franci Catalan
Francio Spanish
Francium French
Franci Friulian
Francio Galician
Francio Italian
Franc Lombard
Franci Occitan
Frâncio Portuguese
Franciu Romanian - Moldovan

— Slavic
Франций [Francij] Bulgarian
Francij[um] Bosnian
Францый [francyj] Belarusian
Francium Czech
Francij Croatian
Frãs Kashubian
Франциум [Francium] Macedonian
Frans Polish
Франций [Francij] Russian
Francium Slovak
Francij Slovenian
Францијум [Francijum] Serbian
Францій [francij] Ukrainian

— Baltic
Francis Lithuanian
Francijs Latvian
Francis Samogitian

— Celtic
Fra'siom Breton
Ffransiwm Welsh
Frainciam Gaelic (Irish)
Frainciam Gaelic (Scottish)
Frankium Gaelic (Manx)
Frankyum Cornish

— Other Indo-European
Φραγκιο [fragkio] Greek
Ֆրասիում [fransium] Armenian
Francium[i] Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
Fransiyûm Kurdish
Франций [francij] Ossetian
Франсий [Fransi'] Tajik

— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
ফ্রান্সিয়াম [phrānsiẏāma] Bengali
فرانسیم [fransym] Persian
ફ્રાન્સિયમનો [phrānsiyamano] Gujarati
फ्रान्सियम [phrānsiyama] Hindi

Finno-Ugric
Frantsium Estonian
Frankium Finnish
Francium Hungarian
Франций [Francij] Komi
Франций [Francij] Mari
Франци [franci] Moksha
Frantsium Võro

Altaic
Fransium Azerbaijani
Франци [Franci] Chuvash
Франций [francij] Kazakh
Франций [Francij] Kyrgyz
Франци [franci] Mongolian
Fransiyum Turkish
فرانسىي [fransiy] Uyghur
Fransiy Uzbek

Other (Europe)
Frantzioa Basque
ფრანციუმი [p'ranc'iumi] Georgian

Afro-Asiatic
فرنسيوم [fransiyūm] Arabic
פרנסיום [fransium] Hebrew
Fransjum, ²Franċju Maltese

Sino-Tibetan
Fap (鍅) Hakka
サランシウム [furanshiumu] Japanese
프랑슘 [peurangsyum] Korean
แฟรนเซียม [fraensiam] Thai
Franxi Vietnamese
[fang1 / fong1] Chinese

Malayo-Polynesian
Pransyo Cebuano
Fransium Indonesian
Francium Māori
Fransium Malay

Other Asiatic
ഫ്രാന്‍സിയം [phrānsiyam] Malayalam
பிரன்சியம் [piraṉciyam] Tamil

Africa
Fansu Lingala
Frankiamo Sesotho
Fransi Swahili

North-America
Francio Nahuatl

South-America
Fransyu Quechua

Creole
Frankimi Sranan Tongo

Artificial
Francio Esperanto

New names
Francion Atomic Elements
Oxymoronium Dorseyville
memory peg

Radioactive metal
melting point (27) °C; (81) °F
boiling point (677) °C; (1251) °F
density -- g/cc; -- pounds/cubic foot
1939 Marguerite Perey, France
France

History & Etymology

Element #87 was predicted in 1871 by Д.И. Менделеев (D.I. Mendeleyev) and described as an alkali metal. He gave it the provisional name Eka-Caesium (or Dvi-Rubidium) (note).

Before it actually was discovered, four alleged discoveries were done and just as many names were given (note):

  • 1925: Russium. The chemist Д. Добросердов (D.K. Dobroserdov) from Odessa published a theoretical study in which he expressed interesting considerations about the value of atomic weight, the physical and chemical properties of element #87 and where and by what methods it should be searched for. He proposed already a name for it, after his native country (note1).
  • 1926: Alkalinium. The English chemists Gerald J. F. Druce (1894-1950) and Frederick H. Loring reported that they observed the lines of Eka-Caesium in X-ray photographs of manganese sulfate. They announced the discovery of the heaviest alkaline earth they would name alkalinium.
  • 1929: Virginium (Vi or Vm). Fred Allison and Edgar J. Murphy of the Alabama Polytechnic Institute reported the discovery of element #87 in lepidolite, a Lithium ore, and pollucite, a mineral containing Caesium. They named it after Allison's native state of Virginia.
  • 1937: Moldavium. In 1936 the Rumanian chemist Horia Hulubei (1896-1972) and the French chemist Yvette Cauchois (1908-1999) reported weak lines which they assumed were a doublet of element 87. At the end of their report they announced the discovery of eka-cęsium , and they suggested the name Moldavium for this element: "Pour cet élément 87 j'ai proposé le nom moldavium (Ml) en l'hommage à la Moldavie, province roumaine, marche avancée vers l'Est de la latinité" (note).
Since, as seemed later, no no long-lived isotopes exist, all these discoveries were erroneous.

The final discovery was made in 1939 by Marguerite Perey (1909-1975) at Curie's Institute in Paris. Studying isotopes that emit alphas with a range in air greater than 3.5", Perey found that Actinium-227 produces a daughter which decays by beta emission with a half-life of 21 minutes. This new element had the solubility properties of an alkali. The element was first known as Actinium-K, following the naming system for natural radioactive sources. First Marguerite Perey proposed Catium after "cation", but Iràne and Frédérick Joliot-Curie sarcastically declared that the sound of this word would remind English speaking chemists of the word cat, instead of cation (note). In 1946 it was named Francium, with symbol Fa, by Perey for her native country. It was the second element named after France! (cf. Gallium). The name and symbol Fr were accepted by the International Union of Chemists (IUC) in 1949.

Initially it had the chemical symbol Fa, later it became Fr.

Historical names of Francium isotopes
Name & Symbol (hist. and modern) First described Notes
Actinium-K Ac K 223Fr 1939 Perey  

France
France (pronounced /ˈfræns/ franss or /ˈfrɑːns/ frahns; French pronunciation: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française, pronounced: [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a member state of the European Union located in its western region, with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its main ideals expressed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

The name "France" comes from Latin Francia, which literally means "land of the Franks," or "Frankland". There are various theories as to the origin of the name of the Franks. One is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. Another proposed etymology is that in an ancient Germanic language, Frank means free as opposed to slave.

However, it is also possible that the word is derived from the ethnic name of the Franks, the connection being that only the Franks, as the conquering class, had the status of freemen. In German, France is still called Frankreich (Dutch: Frankrijk, which literally means "Realm of the Franks". In order to distinguish from the Frankish Empire of Charlemagne, Modern France is called Frankreich), while the Frankish Realm is called Frankenreich (Dutch: Frankenrijk) (note).

Further reading
  • Mary Elvira Weeks, "The Discovery of the Elements, XX: Recently Discovered Elements" Journal of Chemical Education 10 (1933), pp. 161-170. (Virginium pp. 167-168).
  • Mary Elvira Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, comp. rev. by Heny M. Leicester (Easton, Pa.: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968), pp. 838-839.
  • Francium-News (on-line).
  • Jean-Pierre Adloff and George B. Kauffman, "Francium (Atomic Number 87), the Last Discovered Natural Element". The Chemical Educator, Vol. 10, No. 5, Published on Web 09/23/2005 (on-line).

Sources Index of Persons Index of Alleged Elements