55. Caesium (Cesium) - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

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55
Caesium Cesium
Cesium – Zäsium – Césium – Cesio – セシウム – Цезий – 銫
Cs
Multilingual dictionary

Indo-European
Caesium Latin

— Germanic
Sesium Afrikaans
Cæsium, Cesium Danish
Zäsium German
Cesium English
Cæsium Faroese
Cesium Frisian (West)
Sesín Icelandic
Zäsium Luxembourgish
Cesium Dutch
Cesium Norwegian
Cesium Swedish

— Italic
Zesio Aragonese
Tseziumu Aromanian
Cesiu Asturian
Cesi Catalan
Cesio Spanish
Césium French
Cesi Friulian
Cesio Galician
Cesio Italian
Cési Lombard
Cesi Occitan
Césio Portuguese
Cesiu Romanian - Moldovan

— Slavic
Цезий [Cezij] Bulgarian
Cezij[um] Bosnian
Цэзій [cèzij] Belarusian
Cesium Czech
Cezij Croatian
Céz Kashubian
Цезиум [Cezium] Macedonian
Cez Polish
Цезий [Cezij] Russian
Cézium Slovak
Cezij Slovenian
Цезијум [Cezijum] Serbian
Цезій [cezij] Ukrainian

— Baltic
Cezis Lithuanian
Cēzijs Latvian
Cezis Samogitian

— Celtic
Seziom Breton
Cesiwm Welsh
Caeisiam Gaelic (Irish)
Caesiam Gaelic (Scottish)
Kaishum Gaelic (Manx)
Cesyum Cornish

— Other Indo-European
Καισιο [kaisio] Greek
Ցեզիում [ts'ezium] Armenian
Cezium[i] Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
Sezyûm Kurdish
Цезий [cezij] Ossetian
Сезий [Cezi'] Tajik

— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
সিজিয়াম [sijiẏāma] Bengali
سزیم [szym] Persian
સિઝિયમનો [sijhiyamano] Gujarati
सीज़ियम [sījiyama] Hindi

Finno-Ugric
Tseesium Estonian
Cesium Finnish
Cézium Hungarian
Цезий [Cezij] Komi
Цезий [Cezij] Mari
Цези [cezi] Moksha
Tseesium Võro

Altaic
Sezium Azerbaijani
Цези [Cezi] Chuvash
Цезий [cezij] Kazakh
Цезий [Cezij] Kyrgyz
Цези [cezi] Mongolian
Sezyum Turkish
سېزىي [seziy] Uyghur
Seziy Uzbek

Other (Europe)
Zesioa Basque
ცეზიუმი [c'eziumi] Georgian

Afro-Asiatic
سيزيوم [sīziyūm] Arabic
צזיום [cesium] Hebrew
Siżjum, ²Ċesju Maltese

Sino-Tibetan
Set (銫) Hakka
セシウム [seshiumu] Japanese
세슘 [sesyum] Korean
ซีเซียม [sīsiam] Thai
Xezi, Xêzi Vietnamese
[se4 / sik7] Chinese

Malayo-Polynesian
Cesyo Cebuano
Sesium Indonesian
Cesium Māori
Sesium Malay

Other Asiatic
സീസിയം [sīsiyam] Malayalam
சீசியம் [cīciyam] Tamil

Africa
Kaesu Lingala
Sesiamo Sesotho
Sizi Swahili

North-America
Cesio Nahuatl

South-America
Sesyu Quechua

Creole
Fayastonoskotriki Sranan Tongo

Artificial
Cezio Esperanto

New names
Cesion Atomic Elements
Sky Blue Dorseyville
memory peg

Golden colored, incredibly soft solid which easily liquefies. Will catch fire and/or explode upon exposure to the atmosphere
melting point 28 °C; 83 °F
boiling point 678 °C; 1253 °F
density 1.87 g/cc; 116.93 pounds/cubic foot
1860 Robert Bunsen & Gustav Kirchhoff, Germany
cæsius = sky blue (Latin)

History & Etymology

In the Spring of 1860 Robert Wilhelm Bunsen (1811-1899) and Gustav Robert Kirchhof (1824-1887) examined with the flame of a spectroscope a drop of Dürkheim mineral water. One would recognize the light of Sodium, Potassium, Lithium, Calcium, and Strontium. But after precipitating lime, strontia, magnesia, you see the lines of Sodium, Potassium, and Lithium, and in addition, two remarkable blue lines, very close together for which no known substance gives such rays. They wrote in 1860 that

"Spectrum analysis should become important for the discovery of hitherto unknown elements. If there should be substances that are so sparingly distributed in nature that our present means of analysis fail for their recognition and separation, then we might hope to recognize and to determine many such substances in quantities not reached by our usual means, by the simple observation of their flame spectra. We have had occasion already to convince ourselves that there are such now unknown elements. Supported by unambiguous results of the spectral-analytical method, we believe we can state right now that there is a fourth metal in the alkali group besides potassium, sodium, and lithium, and it has a simple characteristic spectrum like lithium; a metal that shows only two lines in our apparatus: a faint blue one, almost coinciding with Sr, and another blue one a little further to the violet end of the spectrum and as strong and as clearly defined as the lithium line." Note.
They proposed to give this new metal the name Caesium from cæsius (Latin), which the ancients used to designate the blue of the upper part of the firmament. This name seemed to them to be justified by the beautiful blue color of the incandescent vapor of this new element (note) Some of Bunsen's enthusiasm is readily apparent in a letter to Roscoe dated November 6, 1869:
"I have been very fortunate with my new metal...I shall name it cesium because of its beautiful blue spectral line. Next Sunday I expect to find time to make the first determination of its atomic weight."

Extraction of Caesium compounds by Bunsen involved concentration of the Caesium and other impurities by evaporation of large volumes of mineral water. Bunsen prepared chlorides, carbonates and other salts of Caesium. He studied the properties of these salts and attempted to prepare Caesium metal but was unsuccessful.

Bunsen and Kirchhoff's samples of Caesium and Rubidium salts. University of Heidelberg.

Chemistianity 1873
JEYAN
CÆSIUM, a kin to Kalium,
Is a white easily oxided metal
That closely resembles Rubidium,
And Potassium, in chemical properties;
The blue Spectrum lines only prove its diff'rence.
J. Carrington Sellars, Chemistianity, 1873, p. 118

Further reading

  • Mary Elvira Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, comp. rev. by Heny M. Leicester (Easton, Pa.: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968), pp. 598-603.

Sources Index of Persons Index of Alleged Elements