Elementymology & Elements Multidict
Koolstof – Kohlenstoff – Carbone – Carbono – 炭素 – Углерод – 碳
Carbon, Kulstof Danish
Koalstof Frisian (West)
Carbune or Cãrbune Aromanian
Carbon, ²Cărbune Romanian - Moldovan
SlavicВъглерод [Vãglerod] Bulgarian
Karbon, ²Ugljik Bosnian
Вуглярод [vuhljarod] Belarusian
Јаглерод [Jaglerod] Macedonian
Углерод [Uglerod] Russian
Угљеник [Ugljenik] Serbian
Вуглець [vuhlec'] Ukrainian
Carbón Gaelic (Irish)
Carbon Gaelic (Scottish)
Carboan Gaelic (Manx)
Other Indo-EuropeanΑνθρακας [anthrakas] Greek
Ածխածին [atskhatsin] Armenian
Æвзалыгуыр [ævzalyguyr] Ossetian
Карбон [Karbon] Tajik
Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryanকার্বন [kārban] Bengali
کربن [krbn] Persian
કાર્બન [kārban] Gujarati
कार्बन [kārban] Hindi
Шомчужысь [Šomčužys'] Komi
Шӱйдӱҥ [Šüjdüŋ] Mari
Седиль [sedilj] Moksha
Углерод [Uglerod] Chuvash
Көміртек [kömirtek] Kazakh
Көмур [Kömur] Kyrgyz
Нүүрстөрөгч [nüürstörögč] Mongolian
كاربون [karbon] Uyghur
Other (Europe)Karbonoa Basque
ნახშირბადი [naxširbadi] Georgian
Afro-Asiaticكربون [faHm, karbūn] Arabic
פחמן [pahman] Hebrew
Karbon, ²Karbonju Maltese
Sino-TibetanThan (碳) Hakka
炭素 [tanso] Japanese
탄소 [tanso] Korean
คาร์บอน [khābon] Thai
碳 [tan4 / taan3] Chinese
Other Asiaticകാര്ബണ് [kārbaṇam] Malayalam
காபன் [kāpan] Tamil
South-AmericaK'illimsayaq, ²Karbunu Quechua
CreoleKoroskotriki Sranan Tongo
New namesCarbon Atomic Elements
History & Etymology
Carbon is of prehistoric knowledge as diamond as well as graphite. That diamonds were known at least as early as 1200 B.C. seems probable according to ancient Hindu writings. The earliest authentic reference to the diamond is ascribed to one Manilius near the 1st century AD. The name diamond derives from a corruption of the Greek word "adamas" (the invincible) (Or: from the Latin adámas, adámantis, which is itself a Greek word, adamas, adamantos, meaning in these languages "hard steel").
The first recognition of graphite is obscured in antiquity. It was confused with other minerals of similar appearance, chiefly molydenite (MoS2). One name for graphite is "plumbago", like lead; and until modern times it was thought to contain lead.
Also carbon in the forms of charcoal and soot must have been known to the earliest humans. In Roman times charcoal was made by the same chemistry as it is today, by heating wood in a pyramid covered with clay to exclude air. The woodcut shows two stages in the manufacture of wood charcoal.
In 1704 Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) proposed that diamonds must be combustible. In 1772 Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) demonstrated that charcoal, graphite, and diamond contain the same substance. Lavoisier called the element carbone to distinguish it from "charbon" (French) for charcoal.
Also in several other languages the name of the element is derived from the native name for coal or charcoal:
George Johnstone Stoney suggested that Argon was a compound of Hydrogenium with "Infrakohlenstoff" (Infra-Carbon), a hypothecal element in the periodic system above C (note) .
CARBON, combined, forming Life's chief tenement,
An abundant, allotropic metalloid;
Is found in nature pure and crystallized
In two distinct and very diff'rent forms;
Transparentas Diamond,Opaqueas Graphite
(Plumbago), and, in an Amorphous state
(Non-crystallized) brieflyas Min'ral Charcoal.
Carbon is Life's choice structural element
In the vegetable and animal worlds;
And in Peat, Coal-Beds, Anthracite, and Shale.
Crystallized Carbonas Diamond, a gem
So greatly prized, in perfect purity
Is colourless, and of high refractive power;
Diamonds are found of various hues
Snow-white (known as the "first water"), rose-red,
Prussian blue, yellow, brown, and also black.
The Diamond is the hardest substance known, its crystals
Are octohedral, and are found detached,
Embedded in gravel or drift material,
Through Brazil, Borneo, India, and Cape.
Graphite, the trail substance in "lead pencils,"
Frequently call'd Plumbago or Black Lead,
is pure Carbon often mingled with Iron;
Sometimes, but rarely, it occurs in crystals.