Elementymology & Elements Multidict
Goud – Gold – Or – Oro – 金 – Золото – 金
Goud Frisian (West)
Aur Romanian - Moldovan
SlavicЗлато [Zlato] Bulgarian
Золата [zolata] Belarusian
Злато [Zlato] Macedonian
Золото [Zoloto] Russian
Злато [Zlato] Serbian
Золото [zoloto] Ukrainian
Òr Gaelic (Irish)
Òr Gaelic (Scottish)
Airh Gaelic (Manx)
Other Indo-EuropeanΧρυσος [chrysos] Greek
Ոսկի [oski] Armenian
Сызгъæрин [syzg"ærin] Ossetian
Тилло [Tillo] Tajik
Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryanগোল্ড [golḍ] Bengali
طلا [tla] Persian
સોનું [sonu'] Gujarati
सोना [sonā] Hindi
Зарни [Zarin] Komi
Шӧртньӧ [Šörtn'ö] Mari
Сирнае, Зрня [sirnae, zrnja] Moksha
Ылтăн [Yltăn] Chuvash
Алтын [altyn] Kazakh
Алтын [Altyn] Kyrgyz
Алт [alt] Mongolian
ئالتۇن ['altun] Uyghur
Other (Europe)Urrea Basque
ოქრო [ok'ro] Georgian
Afro-Asiaticذهب [dhahab] Arabic
זהב [zahav] Hebrew
金 [kin] Japanese
금 [geum] Korean
ทองคำ [thongkam] Thai
金 [jin1 / gam1] Chinese
Aurum, Emas Malay
Other Asiaticസ്വര്ണം [svarṇam] Malayalam
பொன் [poṉ] Tamil
Auri, Dhahabu Swahili
North-AmericaCōztic teōcuitlatl Nahuatl
CreoleGowtu Sranan Tongo
New namesGoldore Atomic Elements
History & Etymology
The elements Copper, Silver, and Gold are collectively known as the "coinage metals" because of their former usage. These elements were almost certainly the first three metals known to man. All of them occur in the elemental, or "native", form and must have been used as primitive money long before the introduction of gold coins in Egypt around 3400 BC.
Cold-hammering was used in the late Stone Age to produce plates of gold for ornamental purposes, and this metal has always been synonymous with beauty, wealth and power. Gold ornaments of great variety and elaborate workmanship have been discovered on sites belonging to the earliest known civilizations; Minoan, Egyptian, Assyrian, Etruscan, and in ancient literature Gold is the universal symbol of the highest purity and value. Cf. passages in the Old Testament, e.g. Ps. xix, 10:
"More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold."Some of the early rich finds of gold artifacts were from the cemeteries in Bulgaria in Europe (5th millennium BC) with accouterments of hammered and sheet gold. Some of the most elegant gold vessels made by the repousse technique come from the Mesopotamia (ca 2500 BC). The Babylonian name for gold - hurasu has a distant resemblance to the Ancient Greek word Χρυσος [chrysos], which is found in the earliest texts. Possibly, this word originates from the name of the place where Gold was found. Spectacular gold castings are known from ancient Egypt, such as the coffin of Tutankhamun (a minor Pharaoh who was only 18 when he died), which contained no less than 112 kg of gold. The Gold mines of Egypt were in Nubia. Hence the ancient Egyptian name for gold - nub. Early gold and silver ornaments from the Indian subcontinent are found from Indus Valley sites such as Mohenjodaro (ca 3000 BC). The ancient Indian word ayas for Gold was later used in other languages for the designation of copper, which, possibly, serves as indication of propagation in the antiquity of false gold.
The legendary Aztec and Inca hoards in Mexico and Peru were a major reason for the Spanish conquests of Central and South America in the early sixteenth century.
From the earliest times gold was compared with the sun, it was called the solar metal or simply by the sun (Sol). The alchemist symbol for gold - a circle with a dot in the center, is identical with the symbol for the sun. In the alchemic literature gold was indicated with many words, usually encoded, such as: zaras, trikor, sol, sonir, secur, senior, etc., and also several words with an Arab origin, for example al-bahag (gladness), hiti (cat dung), ras (head, principle), su'a (ray), diya (light), and alam (peace).
In astrology alchemy the seven heavenly bodies known to the ancients were associated with seven metals also known in antiquity:
The long history of Gold is reflected in the many different words for this metal, although many names seem to mean originally "yellow (metal)". See the list of names to the left and in the overview of Gold in over 100 languages (click here).
The Slavic languages use different forms of золото, zlato. This word, used from the earliest times, is undoubtedly is connected with the earliest Indo-European Sol (sun).
GOLD, the value-type metal through past time,
Irresistibly magnetic to all men,
Named Aurum, is a brilliant yellow metal;
In thin films by transmitted light 'tis green.
Gold is the most mall'able of all metals,
One grain can cover fifty square inches!
It is as soft nearly as Lead; does not tarnish
In pure Air or Water at any heat;
At high temp'rature it is somewhat volatile.
J. Carrington Sellars, Chemistianity, 1873, p. 178-179