6. Carbonium (Carbon) - Elementymology & Elements Multidict

Elementymology & Elements Multidict

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6
Carbonium Carbon
Koolstof – Kohlenstoff – Carbone – Carbono – 炭素 – Углерод – 碳
C
Multilingual dictionary

Indo-European
Carbonium Latin

— Germanic
Koolstof Afrikaans
Carbon, Kulstof Danish
Kohlenstoff German
Carbon English
Kolevni Faroese
Koalstof Frisian (West)
Kolefni Icelandic
Kuelestoff Luxembourgish
Koolstof Dutch
Karbon Norwegian
Kol Swedish

— Italic
Carbonio Aragonese
Carbune or Cãrbune Aromanian
Carbonu Asturian
Carboni Catalan
Carbono Spanish
Carbone French
Carboni Friulian
Carbono Galician
Carbonio Italian
Carbòni Lombard
Carbòni Occitan
Carbono Portuguese
Carbon, ²Cărbune Romanian - Moldovan

— Slavic
Въглерод [Vãglerod] Bulgarian
Karbon, ²Ugljik Bosnian
Вуглярод [vuhljarod] Belarusian
Uhlík Czech
Ugljik Croatian
Wãdźel Kashubian
Јаглерод [Jaglerod] Macedonian
Węgiel Polish
Углерод [Uglerod] Russian
Uhlík Slovak
Ogljik Slovenian
Угљеник [Ugljenik] Serbian
Вуглець [vuhlec'] Ukrainian

— Baltic
Anglis Lithuanian
Ogleklis Latvian
Onglis Samogitian

— Celtic
Karbon Breton
Carbon Welsh
Carbón Gaelic (Irish)
Carbon Gaelic (Scottish)
Carboan Gaelic (Manx)
Carbon Cornish

— Other Indo-European
Ανθρακας [anthrakas] Greek
Ածխածին [atskhatsin] Armenian
Karbon[i] Albanian

— Indo-Iranian/Iranian
Karbon Kurdish
Æвзалыгуыр [ævzalyguyr] Ossetian
Карбон [Karbon] Tajik

— Indo-Iranian/Indo-Aryan
কার্বন [kārban] Bengali
کربن [krbn] Persian
કાર્બન [kārban] Gujarati
कार्बन [kārban] Hindi

Finno-Ugric
Süsinik Estonian
Hiili Finnish
Szén Hungarian
Шомчужысь [Šomčužys'] Komi
Шӱйдӱҥ [Šüjdüŋ] Mari
Седиль [sedilj] Moksha
Süsinik Võro

Altaic
Karbon Azerbaijani
Углерод [Uglerod] Chuvash
Көміртек [kömirtek] Kazakh
Көмур [Kömur] Kyrgyz
Нүүрстөрөгч [nüürstörögč] Mongolian
Karbon Turkish
كاربون [karbon] Uyghur
Uglerod Uzbek

Other (Europe)
Karbonoa Basque
ნახშირბადი [naxširbadi] Georgian

Afro-Asiatic
كربون [faHm, karbūn] Arabic
פחמן [pahman] Hebrew
Karbon, ²Karbonju Maltese

Sino-Tibetan
Than (碳) Hakka
炭素 [tanso] Japanese
탄소 [tanso] Korean
คาร์บอน [khābon] Thai
Cacbon Vietnamese
[tan4 / taan3] Chinese

Malayo-Polynesian
Carbono Cebuano
Karbon Indonesian
Waro Māori
Karbon Malay

Other Asiatic
കാര്‍ബണ്‍ [kārbaṇam] Malayalam
காபன் [kāpan] Tamil

Africa
Kaboni Lingala
Khabone Sesotho
Kaboni Swahili

North-America
Tecolli Nahuatl

South-America
K'illimsayaq, ²Karbunu Quechua

Creole
Koroskotriki Sranan Tongo

Artificial
Karbono Esperanto

New names
Carbon Atomic Elements
Lifetium Dorseyville
memory peg

Transparent crystal (diamond), or a deep black mass (Buckyballs, graphite)
melting point ~3550 °C; 6422 °F
boiling point 4827 °C; 8721 °F
density 1.8-2.1 g/cc; 112.4-131.1 pounds/cubic foot
Prehistoric times
charbon = charcoal (French)
named by Antoine Lavoisier in 1772

History & Etymology

Carbon is of prehistoric knowledge as diamond as well as graphite. That diamonds were known at least as early as 1200 B.C. seems probable according to ancient Hindu writings. The earliest authentic reference to the diamond is ascribed to one Manilius near the 1st century AD. The name diamond derives from a corruption of the Greek word "adamas" (the invincible) (Or: from the Latin adámas, adámantis, which is itself a Greek word, adamas, adamantos, meaning in these languages "hard steel").

 

The first recognition of graphite is obscured in antiquity. It was confused with other minerals of similar appearance, chiefly molydenite (MoS2). One name for graphite is "plumbago", like lead; and until modern times it was thought to contain lead.

Also carbon in the forms of charcoal and soot must have been known to the earliest humans. In Roman times charcoal was made by the same chemistry as it is today, by heating wood in a pyramid covered with clay to exclude air. The woodcut shows two stages in the manufacture of wood charcoal.

In 1704 Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) proposed that diamonds must be combustible. In 1772 Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) demonstrated that charcoal, graphite, and diamond contain the same substance. Lavoisier called the element carbone to distinguish it from "charbon" (French) for charcoal.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786), in 1779, demonstrated that graphite oxidized to carbon dioxide providing its chemical constitution. The name graphite, which comes from the Greek verb γραφειν [graphein], to write, originated with Werner in 1789.

Translations

Also in several other languages the name of the element is derived from the native name for coal or charcoal:
  • German: Kohl = coal, and Stoff = material.
  • Dutch: kool = coal, and stof = material.
  • Czech: uhel = coal.
  • Greek: Anqrax [anthrax] = charcoal
  • Finnish: puuhiili = charcoal
  • Lithuanian: anglis = coal
  • Japanese: 炭 = Chinese character for charcoal, coal, and 素 "so" (elementary, principle, naked, or uncovered).

Infra-Carbon

George Johnstone Stoney suggested that Argon was a compound of Hydrogenium with "Infrakohlenstoff" (Infra-Carbon), a hypothecal element in the periodic system above C (note) .

Chemistianity 1873
ATYAN
CARBON, combined, forming Life's chief tenement,
An abundant, allotropic metalloid;
Is found in nature pure and crystallized
In two distinct and very diff'rent forms;
Transparent—as Diamond,Opaque—as Graphite
(Plumbago), and, in an Amorphous state
(Non-crystallized) briefly—as Min'ral Charcoal.
Carbon is Life's choice structural element
In the vegetable and animal worlds;
And in Peat, Coal-Beds, Anthracite, and Shale.
Crystallized Carbon—as Diamond, a gem
So greatly prized, in perfect purity
Is colourless, and of high refractive power;
Diamonds are found of various hues
Snow-white (known as the "first water"), rose-red,
Prussian blue, yellow, brown, and also black.
The Diamond is the hardest substance known, its crystals
Are octohedral, and are found detached,
Embedded in gravel or drift material,
Through Brazil, Borneo, India, and Cape.
(...)
Graphite, the trail substance in "lead pencils,"
Frequently call'd Plumbago or Black Lead,
is pure Carbon often mingled with Iron;
Sometimes, but rarely, it occurs in crystals.
J. Carrington Sellars, Chemistianity, 1873, p. 43-44
Further reading
  • Mary Elvira Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, comp. rev. by Heny M. Leicester (Easton, Pa.: Journal of Chemical Education, 1968), pp. 69-89.
  • James B. Calvert, "Mercury" 2002 (on-line).

Sources Index of Persons Index of Alleged Elements